CHS-Research Methods

CHS-Research Methods

Research Methods
Title: What is the nature and success of Marina Abramovic’s engagement with the audience in the cultural production of the work?
Definition of the Topic
The research topic is keen on evaluating how Marina Abramovic engages with her audience during cultural production. Most cultural performance relies on the ability of the artist to engage the audience and meet their expectations. The research will investigate the various cultural theories and texts to determine how artistic performance is influenced by the style of audience engagement. Marina Abramovic, a performance artist become a celebrity in 2010 after doing a live performance in New York in an exhibition that was attended by more than 850,000 visitors (Vitell, et al., 2016, p.148). During performance, Abramovic relies on both presence and representation to communicate and interact with its audience effectively. Her presentation and presence in the performance stages helped to elevate its celebrity status from 2010. Today, Marina Abramovic is a recognizable figure in the world of artistic performance. The case study of Marina Abramovic will detail the significance of having effective engagement with audience during cultural performance. The evaluation of cultural theorical studies and texts is relevant in shaping relevant audience engagement with performance artist during live performances.
Research Questions
The main research question is to determine how Marina Abramovic engages with her audience during production of her cultural work.
Other research questions to be addressed includes
1. How is the significance of good audience engagement in the delivery of a performance?
2. How does cultural values and beliefs impact on the performance of artists such as Marina Abramovic?
Addressing the research questions will help to come with detailed discussion on the impacts of culture on the improving cultural performance and artistic work in the society. The review of the various research variables will make it possible for form a comprehensive research work. The research will seek to understand how a performance artist structures their engagement with the audience. During production of cultural work, the audience always have some expectation on how the artist should perform and deliver on the production. The ability to meet the desires of the audience is important to improve success of the cultural performance.
The research work should also evaluate on the importance of effective audience engagement during performance. effective audience engagement helps to communicate and interact effectively on the key issues incorporated in the performance. For example, Marina Abramovic might want to communicate critical social issues such as women employment through her performance work (Oakley and O’Connor, 2015, p.78). Thus, effective audience engagement will be critical in communicating the social issues effectively. The understanding of the implications of cultural beliefs and values is relevant in influencing the performance of the artists. The artist, Marina Abramovic is expected to adhere to the relevant cultural values beliefs during her performance.
Theoretical Context
The various theoretical contexts on cultural influence and performance of audience engagement will be critical to the research work. Three main cultural theories are critical to influence the performance artists in engaging the audience effectively. One of the main theoretical works is the cultural performance theory. According to Dagnino (2018, p.35), the cultural performance theory provides a relevant approach for the proper understanding of cultural aspects during performances. The theory suggests it is important for artists performing their works to conceptualize culture through placing emphasis on key messages and structure through live performance experience. The theory recognizes that performance is critical in the overall study of the human engagement and communication.
Moreover, the cultural performance theory observes humans as creatures with the ability to communicate effectively through stories and making significant meaning of it. The theory has a significant impact on the research work as it makes it possible to refine the messages before the actual performance (Kyriakoullis and Zaphiris, 2016, p.631). The cultural performance theory will assist in investigating the research work by making it possible to understand how Marina Abramovic engages with the audience through the conceptualization of culture. The overall conceptualization of culture helps to understand the needs of the audience effectively.
Cultivation theory is one of the significant cultural theories to influence the performance of the artists in meeting the needs of the audience. Cultivation theory suggests that live performances have longstanding effects, which might be small and indirect, but important. Cultivation theory claim that live performance is responsible for influencing and shaping the audience’s conceptions of social issues and aspects (Hall, 2014, p.37). The integrated effect of the massive media exposure through the viewers with time shapes the overall perception of social understanding of persons and influence culture as well. Therefore, the theory is relevant in formulating key perceptions on improved cultural performance and success.
Potter (2014, p.1017) argues that the cultivation of mass media values and attitudes helps in maintaining values among the audience members effectively. Persons who enjoys most of Marina Abramovic’s performances are highly likely to be influenced by her performances. It is important to develop critical cultural understanding and values to shape audience engagement effectively. The cultivation theory will help in investigating the research subject through offering insights on the link between culture, mass performance, and audience. The evaluation of these variables will be relevant in influencing cultural performance in the society.
The third cultural theory is dependency their, which was developed by Ball-Rokeach and DeFleur in 1976. The dependency theory combines the various elements including the psychology, causal models, media effects, and contextual philosophy. The theory recommends for an essential relationship amongst media, audiences, and the larger cultural systems. It projects that people relies on media and performance information to achieve their specific goals and needs. However, the dependence on media and live performance from artists depends on the number of needs and social stability. When a person is more needs to meet, they will tend to rely more on the media. When social conflicts and changes are frequent, it is impossible to rely on the media as the established values and institutions are challenged (Cvetkovich, 2018, p.103). The dependence theory will help in the research by demanding for comprehensive review of the impact of artist’s performance on the audience effectively.
In addition, other cultural texts can be used in the research work to investigate how Marina Abramovic engages with her audience during performances. The first cultural text is Daniels (2015, p.34) explains the importance of cultural mediation that would entail the improvement of socio-cultural design. The concept of mediation in the text focusses on the process of evaluating the social and personal engagement effectively. The text will help in bringing insights on the cultural aspects that impacts on the social and personal attitudes towards live performances.
The journal text by Hepp, Hjarvard and Lundby (2015, p.324) details the nature and implications of mediatization in shaping improved cultural understandings. The text will help to determine the theoretical perspectives of the relationship between media, society, and culture. The text is significant and more relevant to the research work as it will help in understanding how culture influences the ability of performance artists to engage with the audience effectively. The issues from the text will provide additional knowledge to build theoretical and contextual argument in the research study. The text by Storey (2018) will help in introducing the cultural theory and its relationship with popular culture. Cultural model and system has a significant impact on the popular culture to improve audience engagement and relations. Artistic performance is a part of the popular culture in the society as most artists are celebrities with huge following in the society. In reference to the text, the research work will be able to formulate good arguments on the impact of cultural values on performances.
The text by Crane, Kawashima and Kawasaki (2016) details the impacts of cultural and the various global theoretical models in the society. The understanding of the integration of culture and global theoretical aspects in performance is able to influence the growth of improved artistic performance. the ability to shape the cultural success and performance is critical. The text will make it possible to positively improve the success of linking culture and live performances. Suber (2018) provides an overview of culture and discourses related to cultural subjects in the society. The text will be significant to the research because it provides in-depth information to learn the various cultural perspectives that impacts on the artistic performances. The varied conflicting cultural concepts and ideas in the text will be able to influence improved cultural performance and audience engagement.
Methodology

A qualitative research methodology will be appropriate for the research work. Unlike quantitative research methodology, the qualitative research methodology involves the collection of non-numerical information and data. The structured qualitative research method is relevant in improving the ability to validity of the research work and outcomes. Around 100 literature studies can be gathered and summarized to help in aligning the key research variables to the evidence collected.
According to Smith (2015, p.76), the qualitative research method mainly relies on secondary data sources including journals, cultural texts, and books. These sources would collect both relevant and reliable materials for the research work. The data collection process will involve the gathering of information from the various literature studies. Glaser and Strauss (2017, p.101) suggests that the diverse literature sources will make it possible to collect important research information on the impacts of culture and performer’s ability to connect with the audience on successful performances. However, the gathering of the information will be random.
Ethical Concerns
Some of the ethical concerns related to the research work includes the need to uphold moral and social values. The researchers must be socially and morally responsible as they present their research findings. Potential ethical lapses could undermine the ethical compliance of the research work and outcomes. The research work should also be accountable to the public expectations and needs. The research will not present research outcomes that might not be supported ethically in the society (Duffy, 2016, p.442). In addition, the research study should also be promoted by good norms such as the search for truth and knowledge. The aims of the research work should be noble and ethical rather than focusing on the misrepresentation of truths of fabrications. It is also critical to align with critical law and regulations to improve ethical research findings and works.
Work Plan
Task Duration Planned completion
1. Writing literature study 10days 2 November 2016
2. Finalizing of the research question/problem 13 days 15 November 2016
3. Planning the research design 10days 25November 2016
4. The actual preparation of research design 7days 2 December 2016
5. Analysis of the literature work 8days 10 December 2016
6. Design research methodology 5 days 15 December 2016
7. Drafting of research findings 16days 31 January 2017
8. Drafting of the discussion 7 days 6 February 2017
9. Writing the conclusion and recommendations 4 days 10 February 2017
10. Review and edit of the draft chapters 17 days 27 February 2017
11. Finalizing the research study 4 days 31 March 2017

References List
Crane, D., Kawashima, N. and Kawasaki, K.I., 2016. Culture and globalization theoretical models and emerging trends. In Global Culture (pp. 11-36), London, Routledge.
Cvetkovich, A., 2018. Articulating the global and the local: Globalization and cultural studies. London, Routledge.
Dagnino, E., 2018. Culture, citizenship, and democracy: changing discourses and practices of the Latin American left. In Cultures of Politics/Politics of Cultures (pp. 33-63). London, Routledge.
Daniels, H., 2015. Mediation: An expansion of the socio-cultural gaze. History of the Human Sciences, 28(2), pp.34-50.
Duffy, B.E., 2016. The romance of work: Gender and aspirational labour in the digital culture industries. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 19(4), pp.441-457.
Glaser, B.G. and Strauss, A.L., 2017. Discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research, London, Routledge.
Hall, S., 2014. Cultural identity and diaspora. In Diaspora and visual culture (pp. 35-47). London, Routledge.
Hepp, A., Hjarvard, S. and Lundby, K., 2015. Mediatization: theorizing the interplay between media, culture and society. Media, Culture & Society, 37(2), pp.314-324.
Kyriakoullis, L. and Zaphiris, P., 2016. Culture and HCI: a review of recent cultural studies in HCI and social networks. Universal Access in the Information Society, 15(4), pp.629-642.
Oakley, K. and O’Connor, J. eds., 2015. The Routledge companion to the cultural industries. London, Routledge.
Potter, W.J., 2014. A critical analysis of cultivation theory. Journal of Communication, 64(6), pp.1015-1036.
Smith, J.A. ed., 2015. Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods, London, Sage.
Storey, J. (2018). Cultural theory and popular culture: An introduction, London, Routledge.
Surber, J.P., 2018. Culture and critique: An introduction to the critical discourses of cultural studies, London, Routledge.
Vitell, S.J., King, R.A., Howie, K., Toti, J.F., Albert, L., Hidalgo, E.R. and Yacout, O., 2016. Spirituality, moral identity, and consumer ethics: A multi-cultural study. Journal of business ethics, 139(1), pp.147-160.