FIN921 –MANAGERIAL FINANCE
ASSESSMENT 2 – Individual Essay Assignment – MANUAL
This manual outlines the followings:
? Provision of essay topics
? Task requirements
? Format and printing requirements
? Submission requirements
? Provision of essay topics
You must select one of the following three essay topics.
Topic A: Financial statement analysis has long been a major instrument to predict the probability of bankruptcy of firms. However, significant corporate scandals like the bankruptcy of Enrol, Worldcom and Lehman Brothers have revealed that financial statements are not reliable to estimate the firm’s default (bankruptcy) risk. Use the supporting evidence from journal articles and discuss whether corporates need a new approach to bankruptcy prediction.
Topic B: Financial market regulators worldwide recently imposed short selling restrictions on financial securities. The primary purpose of this was to curb excess stock price volatility. Discuss if these restrictions successfully achieved their purpose. Use supporting evidence from journal articles together with your own analysis of actual financial market evidence.
Topic C: Negative gearing occurs when an asset (e.g. a house or share portfolio) is financed largely by a loan and the periodic interest payments on the loan exceed the income produced by the asset in the same period (e.g. monthly interest exceeds monthly rent receipts or monthly share dividend yield). Explain the advantages and disadvantages of such arrangements in terms of risk and return, especially in the context of increasingly volatile market conditions. Illustrate your answer with example calculations and references to the journal articles and financial press.
? Task requirements
1. The essay MUST be completed individually.
2. You must address all the questions of the topic chosen, and build up your own argument from reading the relevant journal articles and news articles in the financial press.
3. At least 6 journal articles should be included.
4. The maximum length of the essay (including abstract, body text, in-text citation and reference list) is 1,500 words. Essays exceeding the word limit will be penalised with 10% penalty.
Assessment 2 Trimester 3, 2016 Maria Kim
5. An abstract of no more than 200 words is to preface the essay.
6. The essay should follow the structure including Abstract, Introduction, Body text, Conclusion and the Reference List.
7. All essays must include a list of references in academic form using the Harvard citation style. All sourced material, including direct quotations, must be appropriately acknowledged.
8. Use your own words. Reference wherever necessary. Do NOT plagiarise.
? Format and printing requirements
1. Clearly state the TOPIC NUMBER you have chosen on the assignment coversheet (with bar code). Failure to do so will result in a 5% penalty.
2. The assignment must be typed (word processed), in font size 12 with 1.5 line spacing, on one side of the paper only.
3. Pages are to be consecutively numbered.
? Submission requirements
1. The essay is due on Wednesday, 12 October, 2016 at 12 pm (Week 8).
2. Do not wait until the last minute to submit your work. Server problems, network outrages, computer breakdowns, hard disc failures, and the like will not be considered for late submissions.
3. Assignment MUST be submitted through both of the following paths:
a. Submit the MS Word version via TURNITIN system, before printing out.
b. For a printed hard copy submission, you must print an assignment coversheet (with bar code) from http://businessfaculty.uow.edu.au/coversheets/
When you submit the hard copy of your essay report, you MUST attach both 1) a signed assignment coversheet with a bar code and 2) a hardcopy of the TURNITIN -originality report-. Failure to do so will result in a 10% penalty.
4. Place the signed coversheet (with bar code) to the front of the assignment and take it to Business Central to be scanned and submitted. The assignment will electronically be recorded as -submitted- and an electronic receipt will be issued to your University email account.
5. A 10% penalty will be incurred for each business day the assignment is late. Any late assignment should be submitted to Maria Kim directly.
6. You are NOT allowed to collaborate with anyone on this assignment. Sign the declaration stating that the submitted work is your own on the assignment coversheet.
Assessment 2 Trimester 3, 2016 Maria Kim

Issues in Corporate Finance Spring 2016
Individual Assignment
Instructions
• This assignment explores the pecking order theory of capital structure. You should begin your preparation by reading Chapter 17 of Hillier et al. (2012) (in particular, Sections 17.4 and 17.5), as well as Fama and French (2005). You should also read the conclusions in Myers (1984) and Myers and Maljuf (1984).
• The assignment uses data for a sample of U.S. firms, which can be found in the file Assignment Data.xls.
• The empirical results for Questions 2, 3, 5 and 6 should be presented in tables in an appendix entitled Appendix A: Tables. The estimated coefficients, t-statistics and R2 statistics for the three regressions in Questions 5 and 6 should be reported in a single table in that appendix.
• The graphical results for Questions 5 and 6 should be presented in an appendix entitled Appendix B: Graphs, with each graph appearing on a separate page.
• The main body of your submission (excluding the appendices) should not exceed six pages. The text should be formatted in a 12-point font, with double spacing between lines.
• The main body of your submission should consist of six sections, corresponding to the questions below, although you may include additional sub-sections. Please do not restate the questions themselves in your submission.
• The submission date is 17h00 on Tuesday, 11 October 2016. Attach a completed cover sheet to a printed copy of your assignment, using a single staple in the top-left corner, and deposit it in the allocated assignment box on Level 5 of Building 8. (Do not use any plastic sleeves or binders, etc.) Also submit a pdf version of your assignment, together with the Excel workbook containing your calculations, via Turnitin. • Your submission will be graded on the correctness of its analysis, the validity of its arguments, and the quality of its presentation (including its structure, clarity, and correct use of language).
• Note that this is an individual assignment, which you should complete independently, without collaboration or assistance. If you are uncertain about what this means, please consult the university guidelines on plagiarism and cheating.
Questions
Question 1. 10marks
(a) Write a brief overview of the pecking order theory of capital structure.
(b) What does the pecking order theory predict about new equity financing?
(c) What does the pecking order theory predict about share repurchases?
Question 2. 20marks
The following questions refer to Table 2 in Fama and French (2005).
(a) Interpret the evidence presented in Table 2 in relation to the pecking order theory. (b) Construct a table by extending Table 2 to include a fourth row for 2002 data.
(c) Compare the new row with the existing data in Table 2, and explain how it relates to the pecking order theory.
Question 3. 20marks
The following questions refer to Tables 2 and 3 in Fama and French (2005).
(a) Table 3 disaggregates firms into groups formed on size, profitability and growth, and examines how equity issuers differ from equity repurchasers in each group. Explain why this provides better evidence on the pecking order theory than the aggregate data in Table 2.
(b) Interpret the evidence presented in Table 3 in relation to the pecking order theory.
(c) Construct a table by extending the first three columns in Table 3 to include rows for 2002 data.
(d) Compare this table with the table you constructed for Exercise 2, and interpret the results.
Question 4. 10marks
The following questions refer to Table 3 in Fama and French (2005).
(a) Describe the two ‘patches’ on the standard pecking order theory that were introduced by Myers (1984) and Myers and Maljuf (1984).
(b) What does the ‘patched’ pecking order theory predict about new equity financing?
(c) What does the ‘patched’ pecking order theory predict about share repurchases?
(d) Can the ‘patched’ pecking order theory explain the results in Table 3?
Question 5. 20marks
Use the sample data provided to estimate the following cross-sectional regression models:
dLi Ei dSi Ei
= a + ß + e and = a + ß + e,
Ai Ai Ai Ai
where dLi is the net growth in debt issues for firm i, dSi is the net growth in its equity issues, Ai is the value its assets, and Ei is its earnings.
(a) Interpret the results of the regressions, paying specific attention to the magnitudes and statistical significance of the estimated coefficients.
(b) Create a scatter plot of new debt financing (dLi/Ai) against firm profitability (Ei/Ai), and include the predicted relationship between these two variables as a curve on the same graph.
(c) Create a scatter plot of new equity financing (dSi/Ai) against firm profitability (Ei/Ai), and include the predicted relationship between these two variables as a curve on the same graph.
(d) Are these scatter plots consistent with the (standard or ‘patched’) pecking order theory? Your discussion should consider what the two graphs imply, when considered individually and together. You should also relate your results to the evidence in Parts B and C of Table 5 in Fama and French (2005).
Question 6. 20marks
Use the sample data provided to estimate the following cross-sectional regression model:
dSi dAi
= a + ß + e,
Ai Ai
where the variables dSi and Ai are defined as before.
(a) Interpret the results of the regression, paying specific attention to the magnitudes and statistical significance of the estimated coefficients.
(b) Create a scatter plot of new equity financing (dSi/Ai) against firm profitability (dAi/Ai), and include the predicted relationship between these two variables as a curve on the same graph.
(c) Is this scatter plot consistent with the pecking order theory? You should separately consider the cases of low and high growth firms, and of net equity issuers and net equity repurchasers, in your discussion. You should also relate your results to the evidence in Parts B and C of Table 5 in Fama and French (2005).
(d) Explain why profitability and growth should be the two main explanatory variables for understanding variations in debt and equity issues, if the (‘patched’) pecking order theory is true. Based on the R2 statistics for your regressions, do you think this is the case?
References
Fama, E. F. and K. R. French (2005). Financing decisions: Who issues stock? J. Finan. Econ. 76(3), 549–582.
Hillier, D., M. Grinblatt, and S. Titman (2012). Financial Markets and Corporate Strategy (second European ed.). Maidenhead, Berkshire: McGraw-Hill Education.
Myers, S. C. (1984). The capital structure puzzle. J. Finance 39(3), 575–592.
Myers, S. C. and N. S. Maljuf (1984). Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have. J. Finan. Econ. 13(2), 187–221.

MKT00720 – Marketing
Session 3 2015
Assignment 2: Report (on Facebook inc.)
Core Information:
Due: Due by midnight AEST, Friday 8th January 2015
Weighting: 30%
Individual/Group: Individual Assignment
Word limit: 1500-2000 words in total (plus or minus 10%)
Aim: The purpose of this assignment is to again provide you with an opportunity to apply knowledge, theory, frameworks and tools from the early part of the unit to an analysis of the strategy and strategic practices of a real organisation. In this assignment, you will work to analyse the strategies pursued by Facebook since its creation. You will evaluate marketing-related strategies and their effectiveness and relate those real-life experiences to relevant research and theory. The aim is to provide experience of marketing analysis and practice and to determine your ability to relate real marketing strategy to theory and research.
The Overall Task:
Facebook Inc is a global online social network that has about one billion member accounts. However the organisation is less than 10 years old. Despite intense media excitement when Facebook listed as a public company in May 2012, the share price has bobbed around quite a bit since. Many business analysts are beginning to question the company’s long-term viability because it is difficult to discern a coherent business strategy.
Your task in this case analysis is to answer two questions by critically analysing Facebook’s history, resources and market situation. Please do not just describe events, although you should read Facebook’s history to understand the background to your analysis. You should use the principles and concepts that you have learned throughout the unit to answer the following two questions:
1. What marketing strategy or strategies has Facebook adopted since it was created? Answer this question by applying one or more of the theoretical approaches discussed in the course.
2. What marketing options can you describe for Facebook if it wishes to remain a successful organisation throughout the next decade? Answer this question based on the circumstances that exist in 2014 and your best forecasts of relevant future industry factors.
These are wide-ranging questions and you should undertake extensive independent research into Facebook and its industry. You should explore different aspects of these issues and incorporate them into your report. This is a practical assessment of a real company, but you need to show an understanding of theory and research in your evaluation and suggestions.
Process
1. Begin to gather information about Facebook and its marketing-related strategies. There are a range of sources you can make use including the company’s own corporate website and related publications, academic journals, business press and media, blogs and so on. The quality business press such as Forbes or Business Week or the Economist are in some ways good places to start.
2. However, you need to begin to study relevant course materials as the task requires you to analyse and evaluate Facebook’s marketing strategy in relation to theory, frameworks and research.
3. Consider each of the two questions carefully and begin to relate practice to theory in an attempt to answer each of them. The questions explicitly direct you to specific aspects of the unit material and to specific types of models, tools and theories.
4. It should be clear that there is no definitive right answer here. This also mirrors reality, in that companies are not able to find a single solution or pathway; they have to make difficult choices from alternatives. In the light of that try to explore different aspects of the two questions – there are no ‘correct’ answers and lots of valid arguments for and against all kinds of alternatives. The merits of your argument will depend to a large extent on how much evidence you can cite to support your point of view; that is why this is called a research project.
5. Write up your analysis. This should be in a report format. Here is a suggested structure: a. Executive Summary
b. Introduction
c. Background to the Company
d. Marketing Analysis
i. The Nature of Facebook’s Marketing Strategy or Strategies since it began ii. Strategic Marketing Options for Facebook moving forward e. Conclusion
f. References
g. Appendix
Ensure that you have related the real conditions of the company to theory and research and that you have read, cited and referenced appropriate academic material as well as more popular sources (which also need to be properly referenced).
6. Submit the report via the Turnitin Submission Link (under Assessment Details on the Blackboard site)…be fully aware of the plagiarism rules in the School; plagiarism will not be tolerated.
7. The marking criteria for the assignment can be found on the following page. They are published to give you detailed guidelines about the way in which your mark will be calculated. Please read them carefully. Note that they are a guide, not a definitive formula for allocating marks, and no set of criteria can accurately describe every possible assignment. Your final mark will reflect the application of academic judgement by your marker to your whole assignment.
Marking Criteria follows on the next page.
MKT00720 – Marketing (Session 3, 2015)
Assignment 2: Report (on Facebook Inc.)
School extension policy
Students wanting an extension must make a request at least 24 hours before the assessment item is due and the request must be received in writing by the unit assessor or designated academic.
Extensions within 24 hours of submission or following the submission deadline will not be granted (unless supported by a doctor’s certificate or where there are exceptional circumstances – this will be at unit assessor’s discretion and will be considered on a case by case basis). Extensions will be for a maximum of 48 hours (longer extensions supported by a doctor’s certificate or exceptional circumstances to be considered on a case by case basis).
A penalty of 10% of the total available grade will accrue for each 24-hour period that an assessment item is submitted late. Therefore an assessment item worth 20 marks will have 2 marks deducted for every 24-hour period and at the end of 10 days will receive 0 marks.
Please note: work commitments are rarely a sufficient reason to approve special consideration and being away on holidays is never a reason. There is no penalty for submitting an assignment BEFORE the due date, so if you are going away just manage your time to get assessment tasks finished before you go. You’ll enjoy your holiday more.
Extensions will NOT be approved because of problems with personal computers or storage devices. Back up your work every day to a secure location.

BSBMKG501: Identify and evaluate marketing opportunities
Assessment task (4 of 4)
Presentation – PowerPoint, Presentation
Student name: XXXXXX
Student number: XXXXXX
Assessment number: 32070/04
Getting started
The assessment activities in this booklet are designed to provide you with the opportunity to demonstrate your competence in the unit BSBMKG501 Identify and evaluate marketing opportunities.
Assessment submission
When you are ready to submit your assessment, upload the file to OpenSpace using the Assessment Upload links in the relevant study period of your course. The Student Lounge provides a ‘Quick Guide to Uploading Assessments’ if you need further assistance. Uploading assessments to OpenSpace will enable Open Colleges to provide you with the fastest feedback and grading on your assessment. Alternatively, you can print and post your assessment to:
Open Colleges
PO Box 1568
STRAWBERRY HILLS NSW 2012
Please ensure that you use the Open Colleges Assessment Cover Sheet (available in the Student Lounge in OpenSpace). Where assessments are submitted by post, grades and feedback will be released on OpenSpace. Please note that assessments submitted by post may take up to 21 days from the date received by Open Colleges to grade and are reliant on the efficiency of the postal service.
It is important that you keep a copy of all electronic and hardcopy assessments submitted to Open Colleges.
Competency details
This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to identify, evaluate and take advantage of marketing opportunities by analysing market data, distinguishing characteristics of possible markets and assessing viability of changes to operations. It applies to individuals working in a supervisory or management marketing or advertising role within a marketing or advertising team or media organisation.
Grading
To achieve a Pass (PA) grade for this assessment you must, at a minimum, address all the requirements specified in the assessment instructions to demonstrate your competency. To achieve a higher grade such as a Credit (CR), Distinction (DN) or High Distinction (HD), your assessor will be looking for additional details, research, and analysis and referencing, where appropriate. These particulars will demonstrate your in-depth understanding and application beyond the assessment requirements but within the context of the unit being delivered.
See your Student Handbook further information on grading.

Assessment summary
For this unit of competency you will be required to complete four assessment tasks to be deemed as competent.
1. Multiple Choice Questions
2. Multiple Choice Questions
3. Report – Marketing Opportunities
4. Presentation – PowerPoint, Presentation Plan
It is important to look at the evidence checklists provided in each assessment to ensure that you have completed all the set activities and tasks and submitted all the evidence which has been requested for each assessment before your final submission.
General instructions
The purpose of this assessment to provide you with the opportunity to display the necessary skills and knowledge to:
• identify marketing opportunities
• investigate the marketing opportunities which have been identified
• evaluate operations of the business and the changes needed to incorporate the new marketing opportunities.
Each of the assessments listed above are provided as separate documents and all required evidence for each assessment is to be uploaded into the Assessment Portal on Open Space.
Note: Please submit all assessment components in one file, or with as few attachments and separate documents as possible; i.e. do not include templates or emails in separate documents – place them all in the one document.
Presentation instructions
For this assessment, you will be required to using the CoffeeVille case study and complete the activities listed below.
You will need to conduct research to ensure that the information you are including is current and relevant to the case study.
You may also refer to the learning materials which have been provided, to assist you in completing the relevant activities.
CoffeeVille Case Study:
CoffeeVille is a Melbourne based café owned by Rufus and Emma Belcastran who are brother and sister. The business began operation in 2009; prides itself on its quality products and service and believes there is a need to be active in their local community.
CoffeeVille provides a range of food and beverages tailored to the breakfast/lunch service times within the busy Melbourne inner-city district.
Coffee products used by CoffeeVille are sourced globally and the organisation also supports communities on a global scale by purchasing quality products which have been bought based on fair trade best practice.
CoffeeVille supports communities in other ways by:
• sourcing local products where possible
• sourcing and using organic ingredients and products wherever they are able to
• tailoring their products to the needs of their customers (such as including both vegetarian and gluten-free products and menu items).
CoffeeVille has developed all the necessary policies, procedures and financial reports to monitor and review all their business practices on a regular basis to ensure the growth of the business by establishing the appropriate market trends to suit their style of café.
Due to the growth of their business, they have employed you as the Marketing Manager for CoffeeVille. Rufus and Emma originally managed this area of the business but have reached a point where they must relinquish this area to someone with the skills and knowledge to develop the products and services they are passionate about and expand the market where possible.
Activity 1: Presentation
Activity Overview: Preparing and presenting marketing opportunities to management
You have now completed your Marketing Opportunities Report (Assessment 2) which Rufus and Emma had requested. Before you can implement any of the information contained in your report to complete other marketing tasks as a part of your role as Marketing Manager, you will need to meet with Rufus and Emma to discuss your report findings.
Activity instructions:
For this activity, you will be required to complete two activities which will demonstrate your ability to communicate the information contained in your Marketing Opportunities Report to Rufus and Emma so that they can confirm their understanding of your findings within the report.
In preparation for your meeting with Rufus and Emma regarding the marketing opportunities you need to prepare a presentation on your findings and use the report which was created in Assessment 2, which you will deliver when you meet with them.
a) For this activity, you will be required to create a PowerPoint presentation which has a minimum of 10 slides and addresses the key points within your report. Your presentation will need to be submitted as evidence for this activity.
b) Your report must include the key points which include:
• identifying the two marketing opportunities
• justifying why are they viable for CoffeeVille and are a good fit for CoffeeVille
• briefly explaining what a marketing mix is (i.e. product, price, promotion, place)
• briefly outlining your proposed changes.
This only needs to be an outline so it is recommended you keep your points concise and use bullet points where possible.
You need to be creative with your slides and choose graphics, charts and any other visual components which will suit your audience.
You must use appropriate content and language throughout your presentation which is to a level which is suitable for management of CoffeeVille.

Activity 2: Communication skills
As part of your presentation, you will need to create a Presentation Plan using the template provided in Appendix A: Presentation Plan Template, which demonstrates how you will deliver the presentation you have created in Activity 1 above. Points which must be included within your template include:
• an explanation of the listening techniques you will use to ensure that you understand any questions or issues Rufus and Emma have with your report and presentation. Provide examples of how you can apply your listed techniques.
• include a list of prompts which you will use during your presentation to elicit opinions and feedback from Rufus and Emma. These should be directly related to the report you have created and the presentation you are conducting. For example, create some direct questions you could ask which will ensure that you get a response from your audience.
Note: You must submit the completed template provided in Appendix A: Presentation Plan Template for this activity.
Checklist
Note: Remember to include all the required evidence for each activity and upload into the OpenSpace Assessment Portal as one single document.
Activity 1:
PowerPoint presentation – minimum of 10 slides addressing key points of the report
0
Activity 2:
Communication skills – Appendix A: Presentation Plan Template
0
Note: The field boxes above are a self-checklist. Double-click each check box to mark as complete.

Appendix A: Presentation Plan Template
Using the plan below, confirm all the listed points have been addressed and demonstrate how you will present the information using the appropriate presentation delivery techniques.
Presentation Points Prepared and included
Two new marketing opportunities have been identified and are:
The reasons the identified marketing opportunities viability has been included and is located on page:
The marketing mix has been included in the presentation and covers:
The proposed changes have been documented in the presentation and are located on page:
Verbal presentation skills which are to be used during the presentation include:
General presentation skills will include:

Questions which could be asked to elicit views and opinions from Rufus and Emma include:

Active listening techniques which will be used to ensure that questions or feedback are encouraged are:

HI5028 TAXATION
T2, 2014 ASSIGNMENT 2 SOLUTIONS
Due date: Friday Week 10
Instructions:
This assignment is to be submitted by the due date in both softcopy (Safeassign – Bb) and hard copy.
The assignment is to be submitted in accordance with assessment policy stated in the Subject Outline and Student
Handbook
It is the responsibility of the student submitting the work to ensure that the work is in fact his/her own work. Ensure that when incorporating the works of others into your submission that it appropriately acknowledged.
Maximum marks: 20 (20%)
Assignment 1: You should attempt both parts to this assignment Note: you should incorporate all sections of the various Acts/regulations where appropriate.
Part 1: Case study
Periwinkle Pty Ltd (Periwinkle) is a bathtub manufacturer which sells bathtubs directly to the public. On 1 May 2013, Periwinkle provided one of its employees, Emma, with a car as Emma does a lot of travelling for work purposes. However, Emma’s usage of the car is not restricted to work only. Periwinkle purchased the car on that date for $33,000 (including GST).
For the period 1 May 2013 to 31 March 2014, Emma travelled 10,000 kilometres in the car and incurred expenses of $550 (including GST) on minor repairs that have been reimbursed by Periwinkle. The car was not used for 10 days when Emma was interstate and the car was parked at the airport and for another five days when the car was scheduled for annual repairs.
On 1 September 2013, Periwinkle provided Emma with a loan of $500,000 at an interest rate of 4.45%. Emma used $450,000 of the loan to purchase a holiday home and lent the remaining $50,000 to her husband (interest free) to purchase shares in Telstra. Interest on a loan to purchase private assets is not deductible while interest on a loan to purchase income-producing assets is deductible.
During the year, Emma purchased a bathtub manufactured by Periwinkle for $1300. The bathtub only cost Periwinkle $700 to manufacture and is sold to the general public for $2,600.
(a) Advise Periwinkle of its FBT consequences arising out of the above information, including calculation of any FBT liability, for the year ending 31 March 2014. You may assume that Periwinkle would be entitled to input tax credits in relation to any GSTinclusive acquisitions.
(b) How would your answer to (a) differ if Emma used the $50,000 to purchase the shares herself, instead of lending it to her husband?
( 12 Marks) Part 2: Question
An extract of the asset register of Alpha Pty Ltd (‘Alpha’) for the 2012-13 income year is as follows:
Asset Cost Opening
Adjustable
Value Method Effective
Life Decline in Value for
This Period Closing
Adjustable
Value
Desktop
Computer 1,350 1,350 Diminishing
Value 3 years 450 900
Furniture 5,000 3,000 Prime Cost 10 years 500 2,500
Filing
Cabinets 1,200 1,080 Prime Cost 10 years 120 960
All depreciable assets are for 100% business use and Alpha uses a low-value pool for all eligible assets. The closing value of the low-value pool at 30 June 2013 was $5,300. Alpha purchased a printer on 5 June 2014 for $700.
Advise Alpha of the income tax consequences arising out of the above information for
the 2013-14 income year. ( 8 Marks)

Assessment item 3
High Performance Diverse Workplace(Scenario Based)
Length — 2500 words
Task
This assessment task will synthesise your understanding on organisational culture and leadership with your theoretical and practical knowledge of OB in Australian organisations. The focus of this activity is to determine how the practice of OB must be redesigned and realigned in multiethnic/multicultural contexts to ensure cultural appropriateness and to achieve organisational effectiveness.
Scenario
Australia has one of the world’s most culturally diverse workforces. Managing different cultural workgroups has ongoing implications on the success of the organisation. However, cultural differences leading to conflicts caused by ineffective communication and increasing moral and ethical degradation at workplace continue to be an issue of growing concern. Furthermore, as the workforce becomes, to a greater extent, diverse and multigenerational, labour power may force improvement in the employment relationship and call for different kinds of leaderships. Recently, exploratory studies conducted in Australia examined the blend of leadership styles/behaviours that different cultural workgroups preferred their managers to exhibit.
Using both literature and publicly available data:
1. Identify and discuss the communication challenges that a leader should expect to encounter in Australian organisations.
2. Explain how leaders can confront ethical issues in Australian organisations.
3. Identify,synthesize and discuss an optimal mix of leadership styles/behaviours; which should be sufficiently flexible and can be appropriately adopted in Australian organisations.

Rationale
The purpose of the assignment is to build up a specific understanding of managing multicultural workforce and behavioural practices. This is a multi-strand knowledge gathering research that focuses on critical strategic issues in leadership and employee behaviour.

Assignment 1
Database Management System (DBMS) & Decision Support System (DSS)
ACADEMIC INTEGRITY
? This assignment must be all your own work. It is acceptable to discuss course content with others to improve your understanding and clarify requirements, but solutions to assignment questions must be done on your own.
? You must not copy from anyone, including tutors and fellow students, nor allow others to copy your work.
? All Assignments will be checked using collusion monitoring tools to ensure that each assignment is the original work of the submitting student. Assignments that do not adhere to this requirement will be deemed as being the result of collusion or plagiarism. This may lead to severe academic penalties as outlined in USQ Policy Library: Academic Integrity Policy and Procedure. It is your own responsibility to ensure the integrity of your work. Refer to the USQ Policy Library for more details:
• Academic Integrity Policy
• Academic Integrity Procedure
COURSE EXPECTATIONS
? This assignment is quite complex, and exposes you to many different components in Microsoft Access (any version from Access 2007 to current), some or all of which might be very unfamiliar to you. The assignment description provides some explanation of how to use these components, but you are also expected to use available resources such as Online Help, the Beskeen et al text, the Practical Skills sections at the end of each Module in the Study Materials, the SAM online tutorial activities and the course discussion forums, as well as exploring and experimenting on your own.
LATE SUBMISSION POLICY
? USQ’s Assessment – Assignment (Late Submission) and Compassionate and Compelling Circumstances procedures relate to Extensions and Late Assignments. They can be found under the following links:
• Assessment – Assignment (Late Submission) Procedure
• Assessment of Compassionate and Compelling Circumstances Procedures:
? An Assignment submitted after the due date without an approved extension of time will be penalised. The penalty for late submission is a reduction by five percent (5%) of the maximum mark applicable for the assignment, for each University Business Day or part Business Day that the assignment is late. An assignment submitted more than ten (10) University Business Days after the due date will have a mark of zero recorded for that Assignment.
REFERENCING REQUIREMENTS
? References are required and the Harvard AGPS standard of referencing must be used. Ensure that your essay is fully referenced, including any references to the text book. Your essay should include in-text references and a List of References. A useful link on referencing is from USQ’s Library site: http://www.usq.edu.au/library/referencing
? Do not repeat verbatim large slabs of information from other sources such as the text or video – you must put the ideas/information in your own words.
ASSIGNMENT 1 REQUIREMENTS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Applicable course objective:
• apply information systems concepts to identify and resolve problems within a business context
• apply information systems skills to develop practical solutions within a business context
• communicate information systems concepts to both technical and non-technical audiences within a business context.
Applicable graduate qualities and skills gained from this assessment instrument:
• Problem Solving
• Communications
PREAMBLE
Dr John Smith (The Doctor to his friends) retired in 2012 after a long career in General Practice Medicine. To keep busy and to fulfil a lifelong dream, The Doctor started a Memorabilia mail order business, specialising in Doctor Who related products called the “Whovian Pandorica” and began selling various types of imported Doctor Who merchandise such as statues, iPhone skins, giftware, bobbleheads, mugs, clothing and other assorted Doctor Who paraphernalia to customers via mail order around Australia. These types of Doctor Who merchandise have become very popular, especially since the reboot of the BBC Doctor Who television series in 2005 and the hugely popular portrayals of the 10th, 11th and 12th Doctors by David Tennant, Matt Smith and Peter Capaldi have brought the phenomenon back into the public’s attention, as well as the massive spectacle that the 50th Anniversary stirred in 2015; and The Doctor’s business has experienced a rapid growth in their mail orders. When The Doctor first retired, the business bought a personal computer to help manage the books and finances.
Whovian Pandorica is located at Shop 19, 63 Hartnell-Troughton Boulevard, Toowoomba (about 100 km west of Brisbane). Their ABN is 126 279 410. The Doctor can be contacted via phone on (07) 4632 1856; fax on (07) 4632 1943; or email on enquiries@WP.com.au.
The Doctor is extremely impressed with our computing firm “Clara Osbourne Technologies” and the business has contracted our firm to assist them in setting up their various computer-based information systems.
Part A: The first computer-based information system that The Doctor is interested in is a Database Management System (DBMS) utilising Microsoft Access (any version from Access 2007 to current). The DBMS will be used to store all of the business’s customer details, information about the stock items that the business sells, the suppliers that the business uses and all postal order transactions for the business. It will allow The Doctor to run a number of queries on the data which the business has specified below and they wish to be able to print out an invoice for each customer at the end of each month.
Part B: The next computer-based information system that the business is interested in is a Decision Support System (DSS) utilising Microsoft Excel (any version from Excel 2007 to current). The DSS will be used to analyse sales trends for the business to determine future courses of action for the business.
Dr John Smith would like the information in the Database Management System (DBMS) (Assignment 1) imported into Microsoft Excel (any version from Excel 2007 to current) so that the information can be summarised as a report and some future analysis of sales trends performed. The suppliers used by the business, source items from either Ireland (IE) or New Zealand (NZ). They allow the business to select from either of these two regions on an ad hoc basic depending on the most favourable exchange rate at the time.
Dr John Smith has noted that a number of the business’s competitors are providing a discount to customers who place large orders. The business would like to see what affect adopting a similar policy would have on the business. The business has also noted a growing number of online businesses are starting to provide free freight delivery as a way of encouraging more online business; write my essay in the business would like to run a number of scenarios based on potential Mark-up and Freight options to ascertain the best combination for the business if they were to adopt this policy too.
Part C: Dr John Smith also has a number of questions relating to the two computer-based information systems in Part A & Part B that he would like you to answer, prepare an Essay to answer these questions he has listed.
All parts of this project must be developed with professionalism and user-friendliness in mind.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/doctorwho/medialibrary/images/misc/logos/new_logo_512.jpg,
Michael Sauers,11th Doctor Who Logo.
Assignment 1: Part A (Database Management System)
Your firm’s Systems Analyst has developed a database structure that has been determined to be suitable to create a database to store The Doctor’s customer, item, supplier and order data for the business, which has been provided as follows:
Table Specifications
Table:
tblCustomers
Fields: Cust ID (Primary Key), Title, Family Name, Given Names, Date of Birth, Address, City, State, Postcode, Freight Distance (Km), Mobile Number, eMail Address, Mailing List.
Table:
tblItems
Fields: Item ID (Primary Key), Type, Description, Size, Freight Weight (Kg), Supplier ID, In Stock, On Order, Cost Price (IE) , Cost Price (NZ) .
Table:
tblSuppliers
Fields: Supplier ID (Primary Key), Supplier Name, Address, City, State, Postcode, Phone Number, Recommended MarkUp
Table: tblOrders
Fields: Cust ID, Item ID, Order Date (Primary Key), Dispatch Date, Order Qty
Note: The primary key of the Orders table is a combined multiple-field key. It has three fields in one key.
The Doctor has provided to us a partial list of the business’s customers, stock items, and suppliers and a partial list of her postal orders for the first quarter 2017 (Jan – March) to use as test data in four comma delimited text files which can be found on your firm’s Intranet (CIS5100 Study Desk).
Mrs Tara Dis, your manager, has set up the following tasks for you to complete for this part of the project:
Part A Tasks:
1. Create a Database and import the four (4) Text files into four (4) Tables
2. Modify Table Design
3. Set Primary Keys
4. Create Relationships between the Tables
5. Create Data and Update Queries
6. Create an Invoice Report

Task 1: Create and Import
Create a new blank Access Database (using any version from Access 2007 to current) and name it [lastname] [initial] _ [student number] _ [course code] _ assign1.accdb (eg. genrichr_0050051005_cis5100_assign1.accdb).
Import the four sets of data from your firm’s Intranet (CIS5100 Study Desk).
The easiest and quickest way to import data into Access is by using the Import Text Wizard. The following steps must be followed carefully to ensure the data is imported correctly:
Importing Tab Delimited Text files into Access (any version from Access 2007 to current) using the Wizard
1) On the External Data tab, in the Import & Link group, click the Text File data source icon.
2) In the Get External Data – Text File wizard popup, browse to find the ‘Assignment01 Text File Customers.txt’ text file and select the Import the source data into a new table in the current database option – then click OK.
3) Select the Delimited – Characters such as commas or tab separate each field option on the first page of the wizard – then click Next.
4) Select the Tab option on the second page of the wizard and turn on the First Row Contains Field Names check box – then click Next.
5) Set the following for each field on the third page of the wizard:
• Field Name – keep the field name as it appears when imported
Note: Changing Field Names rather than using Captions will result in loss of marks.
• Data Type – giving each an appropriate data type (students will be marked on their logical choice of data types, based on the sample data provided).
Note: Numbers that will not be used for calculations should be set as Text. Numbers such as Freight Weight and Order Qty must be carefully and logically set to avoid loss of data (numbers without decimal places should be set to be either binary, integer or long integer; and numbers with decimal places should be set to be single or double).
See the Beskeen et al textbook Access 2013 Unit E for more details on setting appropriate Data Types, particularly Table E-3: Common Number field properties for logical Data Types.
• When you are sure that each field has the appropriate data type, click Next.
6) Select No Primary Key option on the forth page of the wizard – these will be set in Task 2 – then click Next.
7) Name the table tblCustomers on the final page of the wizard and click Finish.
Repeat the above 7 steps for the rest of the text files naming each Database Table as follows:
Text File Table Name
Assignment01 Text File Items.txt tblItems
Assignment01 Text File Suppliers.txt tblSuppliers
Assignment01 Text File Orders.txt tblOrders
Note: Table names must conform to the Leszynski Naming Convention (LNC) as per the Naming Convention for Access Database Objects document in the Practical Appendixes found on the Study Schedule and Module Materials.

Task 2: Modify Table Design
Modify the four imported tables’ structures using the given Table Specifications, from the section above, in Microsoft Access using Table Design View:
• Use the above table specifications, checking that you have the correct table names and field names.
• Check that all fields have the appropriate Data Type from the following:
o Text, Number, Date/Time, Currency, Yes/No, Hyperlink.
• Add an appropriate Field Descriptions to ALL data field with a well-structured description, eg. for CustID an appropriate description would be:
Customer Identification | Data Type: Short Text: 3 Characters
• Ensure that you also set properties for each field where appropriate. You MUST set the following:
o Field Size – set appropriate logical fields sizes for all Text and Number data types (numbers without decimal places should be set to be either binary, integer or long integer; and numbers with decimal places should be set to be single or double)
o Caption – set an appropriate English caption for all fields where the field name is not in English (eg. Customer ID for CustID)
o Format – set an appropriate format for all: Yes/No and Date data fields; Text data fields that should be stored in Upper-Case (State); Hyperlinks data fields that should be stored in lower-case (EmailAddress); and numbers that contain currency or percentages
Note: IE is the country code for Ireland – should be formatted in Euros; NZ is the country code for New Zealand – should be formatted in Dollars.
o Decimals – set an appropriate number of decimal places for any single or double numbers
o Default Value – set an appropriate default value for all Yes / No data Fields
o Required – set any data Fields that must contain data to Required and leave any Fields where data is optional as unchecked.
o Validation Rule and Validation Text – include appropriate Validation Rules for each of the following data Fields: Title; State; and Item Type. This ensures that only limited value options can be entered for these data Fields.
See the Beskeen et al textbook Access 2013 Unit E for more details on appropriate settings for each Data Type
For example:

Before proceeding to Task 3, check the Data in the four tables against the Data in the four text Files to ensure that there has been no loss of Data during Task 1 and 2.
Task 3: Set Primary Keys
Set the Primary Keys for the four (4) Tables as per the following table specifications in Microsoft Access using Table Design View:
Table Name Primary Key(s)
tblCustomers CustID
tblItems ItemID
tblSuppliers SupplierID
tblOrders CustID, ItemID, OrderDate
Note: The primary key of the Orders table is a combined multiple-field key. It has three fields in one key.
See the Beskeen et al textbook Access 2013 Unit A and the Video provided in the Course Content section for creating primary keys
Task 4: Create Relationships between the Tables
Create the following relationships between the four (4) tables:
• tblCustomers to tblOrders
• tblItems to tblOrders
• tblSuppliers to tblItems
Check that the correct table names and field names are listed in the ‘Edit Relationships’ screen.
Ensure that you ENFORCE referential integrity, but do not set Cascading Updates or Cascading Deletes.
You should check that the computer has identified correctly the 1 to 8 relationships between the four (4) tables.
Note: This must be done after you have established the primary keys
See the Beskeen et al textbook Access 2013 Unit E and the YouTube videos on the StudyDesk for more details on creating relationships

Task 5: Create Data and Update Queries
Create the following THREE (3) queries using the Query Design View. Use the names given for each query to avoid confusion for the client (make sure you submit them in the order given below).
Note: Not all queries will require the inclusion of all four tables; you must decide which tables are appropriate for the generation of each query’s output. Only tables needed should be included in the query design as extraneous tables could cause problems with the query results.
Note: Query names must conform to the Leszynski Naming Convention (LNC) as per the Naming Convention for Access Database Objects document in the Practical Appendixes found on the Study Schedule and Module Materials – including the Query Number and Two Meaningful Words to describe the query eg. qry1XxxxxxXxxxxx.
See the Beskeen et al textbook Access 2013 Unit B, Access 2013 Unit F and Access 2013 Unit K for more details on creating queries
• Query 1: Late Dispatched Orders Query:
The Doctor would like to have a single query that the business can use to see the customers who are:
i) Living in Victoria, have had items dispatched late (between 28th February and today) and where the item was ordered before the 21st February and the item is not in stock
Or
ii) Living in South Australia, have had items dispatched late (between 5th March and today) and where the item was ordered before the 28th February and the item is not in stock
Create a Select Query that will display the CustID, Full Customer’s Name (including Title, Given Names, and Family Name), Full Customer’s Address, Date of Birth, eMail Address, MailingList, ItemID, Full Item Details (including Item Type, Item Description, Freight Weight and Supplier Name), OrderDate, Dispatch Date and OrderQty for those customers
i) living in Victoria, who have placed Orders before the 21st February 2017 but where these orders were only dispatched between the 28th February 2017 and today (using the BETWEEN criteria tool and the DATE() function), and where the business currently has that item not in stock
ii) OR living in South Australia (using the OR criteria row), who have placed Orders before the 28th February 2017 and where these orders were only dispatched between the 5th March 2017 and today (using the BETWEEN criteria tool and the DATE() function), and where the business currently has that item not in stock
Display the results sorted by State and Order Date, check that have you included all necessary Fields and ensure that you only display the required Fields.
Note: This query will display 58 rows of data if done correctly (33 VIC & 25 SA).
• Query 2: Import Duty the New Zealand (NZ) Cost Price Increase:
A new Australian import duty of 9.95% (to help build a bridge between the two countries) has been added for all products being imported from the New Zealand (NZ) and The Doctor has asked you to develop a query that will update the Cost Price from the New Zealand of all items that are currently on order. As it would be considered profiteering, it is important that the query does not update the Cost Price of items already in stock.
Create an Update Query that will raise the New Zealand (NZ) Cost Price for all items on order that are not in stock by 9.95%. It is always good practice to backup any data before running an update or a delete query. The following steps should be followed to achieve this Query:
• In the List of Tables, copy the table called tblItems and paste it with the new name tblBackupItems.
Use tblItems for this Update Query, not your back up table tblBackupItems. If you have difficulties with this query and need to restore your data to the original values, you can copy columns as necessary from tblBackupItems to tblItems and start again.
• Create an Update Query that will increase the Cost Price (NZ) in tblItems by 9.95% for all items currently not in stock but on order.
• Include rounding to 2 decimal places with the update calculation by placing the following function around the update formula: ROUND( update_formula ,2)
Hint:
ROUND( Cost Price (NZ) + Cost Price (NZ) * 9.95% ,2)
Note: Percentages must be converted to decimals in Update Queries.
Do not post formulas to the StudyDesk Forums; it may result in academic misconduct.
Make sure you DO NOT change the Query Type – keep it as an Update Query and do not run the Update Query more than once.
Note: This Query will update 30 rows of data if done correctly – compare the following four Items (ItemIDs 196, 395, & 453) between the tblItems and tblBackupItems to see if the update has been applied successfully.
• Query 3: Invoice Query with Calculated Fields:
The Doctor would like to have a query that the business can use to produce customer invoices (Task 7) to see how many customers not living in New South Wales and not living in Victoria ordered a TARDIS related product where the item was in stock. This query should also calculate the selling price (based on goods purchased from the Ireland) and order total, both of which will be needed on the customer invoices.
Create a Select Query that will display the CustID, Full Customer’s Name (including Title, Given Names and Family Name), Full Customer Address, ItemID, Full Item Details (including Item Type, Item Description, Item Size, Freight Weight and Supplier Name), OrderDate, and OrderQty, including two calculated Fields – Selling Price (AU) and Order Total (AU). Limit the query to only those customers NOT living in New South Wales and NOT living in Victoria (using the NOT criteria tools) who ordered a product where the Item Description containing the word “TARDIS” (using the LIKE criteria tool), obtained from a user specified Supplier, and where the business currently has that item in stock.
Note: As no supplier name has been given, this query must use a Parameter in place of the supplier name.
Display the results sorted by CustID, ItemID and Order Date, check that have you included all necessary Fields and ensure that you only display the required Fields and test using Supplier’s Name of “Rassilon Ltd.”.
Calculated Field Details:
• SellingPrice(AU) – CostPrice (NZ) x Exchange Rate x (1 + Recommended MarkUp)
• OrderTotal(AU) – SellingPrice(AU) x Ordered Qty
Exchange Rate NZ to AU: 0.93
Include rounding to 2 decimal places for the Selling Price Calculated Field by placing the following function around the formula:
ROUND( calculated_Field ,2)
SellingPrice and OrderTotal must be formatted to the appropriate currency and provided with meaningful captions in the properties for these two calculated Fields.
Do not post formulas to the StudyDesk Forums; it may result in academic misconduct.
Note: This query will display 8 rows of data if done correctly.
Task 6: Create an Invoice Report
The Doctor has provided you with the following sample Invoice. The client requires you to develop a similar invoice for their business.
Note: You must use the correct business name and address details given in the assignment preamble for your invoices – the example above is an example of what the client is looking for only.
Using all Fields from Task 5 Query 3, create in the Report Wizard (using the Block Report Wizard Template) a single Report called rptCustomerInvoice that produces a professional looking invoice for the business.
The invoice must have the following attributes:
• The report must contain at least all the elements displayed in the sample invoice (above).
• The report must be grouped by CustID.
• Each Customer’s invoice must be on a separate page.
Note: To do this, in the Report Design View, right click on ‘CustID Header’, choose ‘Properties’, find the ‘Force New Page and change it to ‘Before Section’. You should only view the Invoice in Print Preview to test that this is working – Report View will not put the Customers on separate pages.
Note: This Report will display 7 customer invoices if done correctly when tested using the Supplier Name: “Rassilon Ltd.”.
• Each Customer’s invoice must have the Customer’s name merged into a single Field including Title, Given Names and Family Name by modifying one of the Fields to include:
[Title] & – – & [GivenNames] & – – & [FamilyName]
• Each Customer’s invoice must have part of the Customer’s address merged into a single Field including City, State and Postcode by modifying one of the Fields to include:
[City] & – – & [State] & – – & [Postcode]
• Each Customer’s invoice must have Today’s Date in the Page Header
• Each Customer’s invoice must have an Invoice Total for each customer
• Each Customer’s invoice must not have any extraneous data including Grand Totals, Page Numbering, nor Summary Information.
• Each Customer’s order must have the Order Date in the Details Section
• Each Customer’s order must have alternating background colours in the Details Section
• Each Image on the invoice must be inserted using the Image Control and must have the following properties:
Properties Options
Picture Type: Embedded
Control Source: Blank
Picture: [File Name]
See the Beskeen et al textbook Access 2013 Unit D and Access 2013 Unit L and the Videos provided in the Course Content section for more details on creating Reports
Note: Report names must conform to the Leszynski Naming Convention (LNC) as per the Naming Convention for Access Database Objects document in the Practical Appendixes found on the Study Schedule and Module Materials.

Assignment 1: Part B (Decision Support System)
Mrs Tara Dis, your manager, has set up the following tasks for you to complete for this part of the project:
Part B Tasks:
1. Create a Spreadsheet and import the four (4) Access Tables into four (4) Worksheets
2. Data Validation Check
3. Create an Index Worksheet
4. Create a Data Input Worksheet Template for later use
5. Create a Calculations Worksheet Template for later use
6. Create Name Ranges for the Customers, Items, and Suppliers data
7. Create a Report Worksheet and set up the column headings
8. Modify the Report Worksheet by Cell Referencing all the Orders Table data
9. Modify the Report Worksheet by using VLOOKUP to get Customer, Item and Supplier data
10. Modify the Data Input Worksheet to include extra data needed for tasks 11 to 15
11. Modify the Report Worksheet by using a Nested IF to calculate Cost Price (AU)
12. Modify the Report Worksheet by using a Nested IF to calculate Selling Price
13. Modify the Report Worksheet by using a Nested IF to calculate Freight Cost
14. Modify the Report Worksheet by using a AND / IF to calculate Item Discount
15. Modify the Report Worksheet by using simple formulas to find Purchases and Sales, and Modify the Report Worksheet by using a formula to calculate the Order Discount
16. Modify the Data Input Worksheet to include extra data needed for tasks 18 to 22
17. Modify the Calculations Worksheet by using simple formulas
18. Modify the Data Input Worksheet by Cell Referencing all the Calculations data
19. Create eight (8) Scenarios on the Data Input Worksheet
20. Create a Scenario Summary of the eight (8) Scenarios
21. Create a Documentation Worksheet

Task 1: Create and Import
Open a single new Excel (any version from Excel 2007 to current) spreadsheet and name the file – ‘[lastname] [initial] _ [student number] _ [course code] _ [assignment number]’ (eg. genrichr_0050051005_cis5100_assign1.xlsx).
Import the following four (4) database tables from your Assignment 1 Microsoft Access (any version from Access 2007 to current) Database File and into Microsoft Excel (any version from Excel 2007 to current) (tblCustomers, tblItems, tblSuppliers, tblOrders). The easiest and quickest way to import data from Access (any version from Access 2007 to current) into Excel (any version from Excel 2007 to current) is by using the “Import From Access” Wizard. The following steps will assist you with this process:
8) Select the first unused tab at the bottom of the Spreadsheet, right click on it and rename it “CustomersTable”.

9) Put a heading at the top of the worksheet in cell A1 called “Customers Table”.
10) Go to the Data Icon Ribbon (see below)

11) Click on the From Access option in the Get External Data icon area.
12) In the Get External Data – From Access wizard popup, browse to find your Assignment 1 Access Database file and select the – then click Open.
13) In the Select Table wizard popup, select tblCustomers – click OK.
14) In the Import Data wizard popup, select Table and Existing Worksheet $A$3 as the location to Import the place to put the data.
15) Left click anywhere on the imported data in worksheet then go to the Design Icon Ribbon and select Convert to Range then click OK.
16) Check that the data has correctly been imported correctly into this worksheet.
17) Modify the layout of the data to a professional level of presentation, making sure that the headings are in English (Customer ID not CustID).
Use bold, italics, font size, font colours, shading, lines and borders.
Repeat the above 10 steps for the rest of the Access Database tables naming each worksheet as follows:
Database Table Worksheet Name Worksheet Title (Cell A1)
tblItems ItemsTable Items Table
tblSuppliers SuppliersTable Suppliers Table
tblOrders OrdersTable Orders Table
Task 2: Data Validation Check
Check the imported data in the CustomersTable, ItemsTable, SuppliersTable and OrdersTable to ensure that:
1. The column headings are displayed correctly
2. The content of each column displays in a format that appears valid for that type of data (apply appropriate formatting if required).
3. The content of each column contains complete and accurate data values (eg. Phone numbers are not truncated).
4. The content of each column contains reasonable data values for the use of this business.
If you discover that the data imported in any of your 4 table worksheets contains missing or inaccurate values, please contact the CIS5100 course team immediately. You will be issued with a new copy of the Assignment 1 Access Database file (containing the 4 Database Tables) to restart Task 1.
Task 3: Index Worksheet
Add a worksheet labelled Index before the four tables from Task 1. Put a heading at the top of the worksheet in cell A1 called Index Worksheet. Ensure that it contains all the recommended data for this worksheet listed in the Practical Appendixes found on the Study Schedule and Module Materials – Spreadsheet design considerations.
Modify the layout of the data to a professional level of presentation. Use bold, italics, font size, font colours, shading, lines and borders.

Task 4: Data Input Worksheet Template
Add a worksheet labelled DataInput after the Index worksheet from Task 2 (but before the four tables from Task 1) that conforms to the Practical Appendixes found on the Study Schedule and Module Materials – Spreadsheet design considerations. Put a heading at the top of the worksheet in cell A1 called Data Input Worksheet and then input the following template in the exact cells shown below onto this worksheet:
A B C D
3 Changing Cells:
4 Recommended MarkUp Type [Insert Markup Type here]
5 Recommended Freight Type [Insert Freight Type here]
6 Store Recommended MarkUp % [Insert Standard MarkUp % here]
7 Recommended Exchange Rate Type [Insert Exchange Rate Type here]
8 Exchange Rate (IE to AU) [Insert IE to AU Exchange Rate here]
9 Exchange Rate (NZ to AU) [Insert NZ to AU Exchange Rate here]
10
11 Quarterly Income:
12 Total Sales [Insert Cell Reference here]
13
14 Quarterly Fixed Expenses:
15 Bank Charges [Insert Bank Charges Expense here]
16 Electricity Expenses [Insert Electricity Expense here]
17 Freight Inwards Expenses [Insert Freight Inwards Expense here]
18 Internet Expenses [Insert Internet Expense here]
19 Telephone Expenses [Insert Telephone Expense here]
20 Wages Expenses [Insert Wages Expense here]
21
22 Total Quarterly Fixed Expenses [Insert Cell Reference here]
23
24 Quarterly Variable Expenses:
25 Total Purchases Expenses [Insert Cell Reference here]
26 Total Freight Outwards Expenses [Insert Cell Reference here]
27
28 Total Quarterly Variable Expenses [Insert Cell Reference here]
29
30 Total Profit: [Insert Cell Reference here]
31 Total Discount for Orders: [Insert Cell Reference here]
32 No. Orders Discount Applied: [Insert Cell Reference here]
* This template will be modified with correct number, formula and function in tasks 10 onwards.
Modify the layout of the data to a professional level of presentation. Use bold, italics, font size, font colours, shading, lines and borders.

Task 5: Calculations Worksheet Template
Add a worksheet labelled Calculations after the DataInput worksheet from Task 4 (but before the four tables from Task 1) that conforms to the Practical Appendixes found on the Study Schedule and Module Materials – Spreadsheet design considerations. Put a heading at the top of the worksheet in cell A1 called Calculations Worksheet and then input the following template in the exact cells shown below onto this worksheet:
A B C D
3 Quarterly Income
4 Total Sales: [Insert Formula here]
5
6 Quarterly Expenses
7 Total Quarterly Fixed Expenses: [Insert Formula here]
8
9 Total Quarterly Variable Expenses
10 Total Purchases Expenses [Insert Formula here]
11 Total Freight Outwards Expenses [Insert Formula here]
12
13 Total Quarterly Variable Expenses: [Insert Formula here]
14
15 Total Profit: [Insert Formula here]
16 Total Discount for Orders: [Insert Formula here]
17 No. Orders Discount Applied: [Insert Formula here]
* This template will be modified with correct number, formula and function in tasks 10 onwards.
Modify the layout of the data to a professional level of presentation. Use bold, italics, font size, font colours, shading, lines and borders.
Task 6: Name Ranges
On the CustomersTable, ItemsTable and SuppliersTable worksheets set the following Cell Range Names:
• Cust – on all the data (not headings) in the CustomersTable worksheet
• Itms – on all the data (not headings) in the ItemsTable worksheet
• Supp – on all the data (not headings) in the SuppliersTable worksheet
Note: You must only create the three name ranges listed in this task, any other name ranges used may result in loss of marks.

Task 7: Report Worksheet Headings
Add a worksheet labelled Report after the Calculations worksheet from Task 5 (but before the four tables from Task 1) that conforms to the Practical Appendixes found on the Study Schedule and Module Materials – Spreadsheet design considerations. Put a heading at the top of the worksheet in cell A1 called Report Worksheet and then type the following column headings, starting in cell A3:
• Customer ID, Title, Family Name, Given Names, Address, City, State, Postcode, Distance (km), Item ID, Type, Description, Size, Freight Weight (Kg), Supplier ID, Supplier Name, Supplier Recommended Markup (%), Order Date, Order Qty, Cost Price (IE), Cost Price (NZ), Cost Price (AU), Selling Price, Purchases, Item Discount, Sales, Freight Cost, Order Discount.
Modify the Report worksheets to a professional level of presentation, making sure that the headings are in English (Customer ID not CustID). Use bold, italics, font size, font colours, shading, lines and borders.
Task 8: Report Worksheet Cell Reference
On the Report worksheet, Use the Cell References formula, to obtain all 1000 rows of data from the OrdersTable worksheet for the following:
• Customer ID, Item ID, Order Date, Order Qty.
(For example, type =OrdersTable!A4 to reference data in cell A4 of the OrdersTable worksheet.)
Do not post formulas to the StudyDesk Forums; it may result in academic misconduct.
Modify the Summary worksheets to a professional level of presentation, making sure that the data is formatted correctly.
Note: All formulas must be designed to be typed once at the top of each column and copied down to the remaining cells in the column.
Task 9: Report Worksheet VLOOKUP
On the Report worksheet use the VLOOKUP function with the Cell Range Names (Task 2), obtain all 1000 rows of data from the CustomersTable, ItemsTable and SuppliersTable worksheets for the following:
• Customers Worksheet:
o Title, Family Name, Given Names, Address, City, State, Postcode, Freight Distance (km)
• Items Worksheet:
o Type, Description, Size, Freight Weight (kg), Supplier ID, Cost Price (IE),
Cost Price (NZ)
• Suppliers Worksheet:
o Supplier Name, Recommended Markup (%)
Do not post formulas to the StudyDesk Forums; it may result in academic misconduct.
Note: All formulas must be designed to be typed once at the top of each column and copied down to the remaining cells in the column – Beskeen Excel Unit B.
See the Beskeen Excel Unit H and the Videos provided in the Course Content section for more details on creating VLOOKUP functions
Task 10: Modify Data Input Worksheet
On the DataInput worksheet perform the following:
• type Store into the cell containing the phrase: [Insert Markup Type here],
• type 47.25% into the cell containing the phrase: [Insert Standard MarkUp here],
• type IE into the cell containing the phrase: [Insert Exchange Rate Type here],
• type 1.38 into the cell containing the phrase: [Insert IE to AU Exchange Rate here],
• type 0.93 into the cell containing the phrase: [Insert NZ to AU Exchange Rate here].
Task 11: Report Worksheet Cost Price (AU) Nested IF
On the Report worksheet:
1. Develop an IF function using the new Recommended Exchange Rate Type value (from the DataInput worksheet to calculate the Cost Price (AU) (in the Cost Price (AU) column) using the following criteria:
• If the Exchange Rate Type is IE then the Cost Price (AU) is calculated by multiplying the Cost Price (IE) by the Exchange Rate (IE to AU) cell on the DataInput worksheet.
Hint:
Cost Price (IE) x Exchange Rate (IE to AU)
• If the Exchange Rate Type is NZ then the Cost Price (AU) is calculated by multiplying the Cost Price (NZ) by the Exchange Rate (NZ to AU) cell on the DataInput worksheet.
Hint:
Cost Price (NZ) x Exchange Rate (NZ to AU)
Do not post formulas to the StudyDesk Forums; it may result in academic misconduct.
2. Ensure that you include rounding (to 2 decimal places – Beskeen Excel Unit B) into each calculation in your IF function and error checking (Beskeen Excel Unit E) to avoid incorrect results due to typing mistakes.
Note: All formulas must be designed to be typed once at the top of each column and copied down to the remaining cells in the column – Beskeen Excel Unit B.
Also do not include any unit measures such as $, kg or km in the IF function as this will result in a #VALUE error message. Brackets must only be used as indicated in the hints given above, any incorrect or extraneous usage of brackets may result in loss of marks.
You must remove any reference to the prefix Report! from these Nested IF functions to reduce complexity and redundancy of code.

See the Beskeen Excel Unit E and the Videos provided in the Course Content section for more details on creating IF functions
3. Test the IF function: Once you have completed the Cost Price (AU) IF function, perform the following two tests on it to ensure that it is working correctly:
• On the DataInput worksheet, type NZ into the Exchange Rate Type cell.
• Go to the Report worksheet and observe whether the Cost Price (AU) have changed.
• On the DataInput worksheet, type GIGO into the Exchange Rate Type cell.
• Go to the Report worksheet and observe whether the Cost Price (AU) now displays an error message.
Task 12: Report Worksheet Selling Price Nested IF
On the Report worksheet:
1. Develop an IF function using the new Recommended MarkUp Type value (from the DataInput worksheet) to calculate the Selling Price (in the Selling Price column) using the following criteria:
• If the MarkUp Type is Store then the Selling Price is calculated by increasing Cost Price by the Store’s Recommended MarkUp % from the DataInput worksheet
Hint:
Cost Price (AU) + Cost Price (AU) x Store Recommended MarkUp
• If the MarkUp Type is Supplier then the Selling Price is calculated by increasing Cost Price by the Supplier’s Recommended MarkUp
Hint:
Cost Price (AU) + Cost Price (AU) x Supplier Recommended MarkUp
Do not post formulas to the StudyDesk Forums; it may result in academic misconduct.
2. Ensure that you include rounding (to 2 decimal places – Beskeen Excel Unit B) into each calculation in your IF function and error checking (Beskeen Excel Unit E) to avoid incorrect results due to typing mistakes.
Note: All formulas must be designed to be typed once at the top of each column and copied down to the remaining cells in the column – Beskeen Excel Unit B.
Also do not include any unit measures such as $, kg or km in the IF function as this will result in a #VALUE error message. Brackets must only be used as indicated in the hints given above, any incorrect or extraneous usage of brackets may result in loss of marks.
You must remove any reference to the prefix Report! from these Nested IF functions to reduce complexity and redundancy of code.
See the Beskeen Excel Unit E and the Videos provided in the Course Content section for more details on creating IF functions

3. Test the IF function: Once you have completed the Selling Price IF function, perform the following two tests on it to ensure that it is working correctly:
• On the DataInput worksheet, type Supplier into the MarkUp Type cell.
• Go to the Report worksheet and observe whether the Selling Prices have changed.
• On the DataInput worksheet, type GIGO into the MarkUp Type cell.
• Go to the Report worksheet and observe whether the Selling Prices now displays an error message.
Task 13: Report Worksheet Freight Cost Nested IF
1. On the DataInput worksheet, type Lethbridge-Stewart Transport into the cell containing the phrase: [Insert Freight Type here].
2. On the Report worksheet develop an IF function using the new Recommended Freight Type value (from the DataInput worksheet to calculate the Freight Cost (in the Freight Cost column) using the following criteria:
1. If the Freight Type is Lethbridge-Stewart Transport then the Freight Cost is calculated at twenty-five cents ($0.25) per kilogram of the item’s freight weight and a third of a cent ($0.0033) per kilometre (Distance) if over 750 km per item ordered (Order Qty).
Hint:
($0.25 x Item Weight + IF(Distance 750 km, $0.0033 x Distance, 0)) x OrderQty
2. If the Freight Type is Sarah Jane Smith Logistics then the Freight Cost is calculated at a four dollars and fifty cents ($4.50) for the first nine hundred and ninety grams (0.99 kg) and then at a dollar and five cents ($1.05) per kilogram of the item’s freight weight over nine hundred and ninety grams (0.99 kg) per item ordered (Order Qty).
Hint:
($4.50 + IF(Item Weight 0.99 kg, (Item Weight – 0.99 kg) x $1.05, 0)) x OrderQty
Do not post formulas to the StudyDesk Forums; it may result in academic misconduct.
3. Ensure that you include rounding (to 2 decimal places – Beskeen Excel Unit B) into each calculation in your IF function and error checking (Beskeen Excel Unit E) to avoid incorrect results due to typing mistakes.
Note: All formulas must be designed to be typed once at the top of each column and copied down to the remaining cells in the column – Beskeen Excel Unit B.
Also do not include any unit measures such as $, kg or km in the IF function as this will result in a #VALUE error message. Brackets must only be used as indicated in the hints given above, any incorrect or extraneous usage of brackets may result in loss of marks.
You must remove any reference to the prefix Report! from these Nested IF functions to reduce complexity and redundancy of code.
See the Beskeen Excel Unit E and the Videos provided in the Course Content section for more details on creating IF functions

4. Test the IF function: Once you have completed the Freight Cost IF function, perform the following three tests on it to ensure that it is working correctly:
1. On the DataInput worksheet, type Sarah Jane Smith Logistics into the Freight Type cell.
2. Go to the Report worksheet and observe whether the Freight Costs have changed.
3. On the DataInput worksheet, type GIGO into the Freight Type cell.
4. Go to the Report worksheet and observe whether the Freight Costs now displays an error message.
Task 14: Report Worksheet IF / AND: Item Discount
1. On the Report worksheet develop an IF / AND function to calculate the amount of Item Discount given to an individual item on an order (in the Item Discount column) using the following criteria:
1. If the OrderQty is greater than or equal to ten (10) of the same item in any single order AND the Selling Price for that item is greater than $25.00, then the Item Discount is calculated at 7.5% of the Selling Price for that item, otherwise the Item Discount is zero.
Hint:
=IF (AND (OrderQty = 10, Selling Price $25), Selling Price x 7.5%, 0)
2. Ensure that you include rounding (to 2 decimal places – Beskeen Excel Unit B) into each calculation in your IF / AND function.
Note: All formulas must be designed to be typed once at the top of each column and copied down to the remaining cells in the column – Beskeen Excel Unit B.
Also do not include any unit measures such as $, kg or km in the IF function as this will result in a #VALUE error message. Brackets must only be used as indicated in the hints given above, any incorrect or extraneous usage of brackets may result in loss of marks.
You must remove any reference to the prefix Report! from these IF / AND functions to reduce complexity and redundancy of code.
See the Beskeen Excel Unit E and the Videos provided in the Course Content section for more details on creating IF functions
3. Test the IF function: Once you have completed the Item Discount IF / AND function and filled it down the column, review the values to ensure that it is working correctly in the following situations:
2. OrderQty is less than ten (10) and Selling Price is less than or equal to $25, should result in $0.00 Item Discount.
3. OrderQty is less than ten (10) and Selling Price is greater than $25, should result in $0.00 Item Discount.
4. OrderQty is greater than or equal to ten (10) and Selling Price is less than or equal to $25, should result in $0.00 Item Discount.
5. OrderQty is greater than or equal to ten (10) and Selling Price is greater than $25, should result in an Item Discount.
Task 15: Report Worksheet Purchases, Sales and Order Discount Formulas
On the Report worksheet calculate the following three simple formulas:
1. Purchases by multiplying Order Qty with Cost Price (AU).
2. Sales by multiplying Order Qty by the difference of Selling Price less the Item Discount amount.
Hint:
=(Selling Price – Item Discount) x Order Qty
3. Order Discount by multiplying Order Qty with Item Discount.
Note: All formulas must be designed to be typed once at the top of each column and copied down to the remaining cells in the column – Beskeen Excel Unit B.
You must remove any reference to the prefix Report! from these formulae to reduce complexity and redundancy of code. Brackets must only be used as indicated in the hints given above, any incorrect or extraneous usage of brackets may result in loss of marks.
Do not post formulas to the StudyDesk Forums; it may result in academic misconduct.
Task 16: Modify Data Input Worksheet
On the DataInput worksheet:
1. Replace the phrase “[Insert Bank Charges Expenses here]” in cell D15 with $7,695.65
2. Replace the phrase “[Insert Electricity Expenses here]” in cell D16 with $2,537.20
3. Replace the phrase “ [Insert Freight Inwards Expense here] ” in cell D17 with $85,130.55
4. Replace the phrase “ [Insert Internet Expense here] ” in cell D18 with $4,159.98
5. Replace the phrase “[Insert Telephone Expenses here]” in cell D19 with $3,392.22
6. Replace the phrase “[Insert Wages Expenses here]” in cell D20 with $49,202.42
Task 17: Calculations Worksheet Formulas
On the Calculations worksheet calculate the following four simple formula:
1. Replace the phrase in D4 “[Insert Formula here]” with a function to calculate the Total Sales by adding all the Sales in the Sales column on the Reports worksheet.
2. Replace the phrase in D7 “[Insert Formula here]” with a function to calculate the Total Quarterly Fixed Expenses by adding all the Quarterly Fixed Expenses on the DataInput worksheet.
3. Replace the phrase in D10 “[Insert Formula here]” with a function to calculate the Total Purchases by adding all the Purchases in the Purchases column on the Reports worksheet.
4. Replace the phrase in D11 “[Insert Formula here]” with a function to calculate the Total Freight by adding all the Freight Costs in the Freight Cost column on the Reports worksheet.
5. Replace the phrase in D13 “[Insert Formula here]” with a formula to calculate the Total Quarterly Variable Expenses by adding all the Quarterly Variable Expenses on the Calculations worksheet.
6. Replace the phrase in D15 “[Insert Formula here]” with a formula to calculate the Total Profit by subtracting the Total Quarterly Fixed and Total Quarterly Variable Expenses from the Total Sales on the Calculations worksheet.
7. Replace the phrase in D16 “[Insert Formula here]” with a function to calculate the Total Discount for Orders by using the SUMIF() function to add up all cells with an Order Discount greater than 0 in the Order Discount column on the Reports worksheet.
8. Replace the phrase in D17 “[Insert Formula here]” with a function to calculate the Number of Orders where a Discount was Applied by using the COUNTIF() function to count all cells with an Order Discount greater than 0 in the Order Discount column on the Reports worksheet.
Hint: For details on SUMIF and COUNTIF usage see Beskeen Unit E.
Do not post formulas to the StudyDesk Forums; it may result in academic misconduct.
Task 18: Data Input Cell References
On the DataInput worksheet:
1. Replace the phrase “[Insert Cell Reference Here]” in cell D12 with a cell reference to the Total Sales amount on the Calculations worksheet.
2. Replace the phrase “[Insert Cell Reference Here]” in cell D22 with a cell reference to the Total Quarterly Fixed Expenses amount on the Calculations worksheet.
3. Replace the phrase “[Insert Cell Reference Here]” in cell D25 with a cell reference to the Total Purchases Expenses amount on the Calculations worksheet.
4. Replace the phrase “[Insert Cell Reference Here]” in cell D26 with a cell reference to the Total Freight Outwards Expenses amount on the Calculations worksheet.
5. Replace the phrase “[Insert Cell Reference Here]” in cell D28 with a cell reference to the Total Quarterly Variable Expenses amount on the Calculations worksheet.
6. Replace the phrase “[Insert Cell Reference Here]” in cell D30 with a cell reference to the Total Profit amount on the Calculations worksheet.
7. Replace the phrase “[Insert Cell Reference Here]” in cell D31 with a cell reference to the Total Discount for Orders amount on the Calculations worksheet.
8. Replace the phrase “[Insert Cell Reference Here]” in cell D32 with a cell reference to the No. Orders Discount Applied amount on the Calculations worksheet.
Note: Ensure that you only use cell referencing for the Totals data.
Modify the CustomerTable, ItemTable, OrdersTable, SuppliersTable, DataInput, Calculations and Report worksheets to a professional level of presentation, making sure that the data is formatted correctly. Use bold, italics, font size, font colours, shading, lines and borders.
Do not post formulas to the StudyDesk Forums; it may result in academic misconduct.
Task 19: Scenarios
Using the Scenario Manager in Excel create and check the following eight (8) Scenarios using the Changing Cells of D4, D5 and D7 on the DataInput worksheet:
Scenario Markup Type Freight Type Exchange Rate Type
1 Store Lethbridge-Stewart Transport IE
2 Store Lethbridge-Stewart Transport NZ
3 Store Sarah Jane Smith Logistics IE
4 Store Sarah Jane Smith Logistics NZ
5 Supplier Lethbridge-Stewart Transport IE
6 Supplier Lethbridge-Stewart Transport NZ
7 Supplier Sarah Jane Smith Logistics IE
8 Supplier Sarah Jane Smith Logistics NZ
Note: Ensure you have a suitable scenario name for each scenario, eg. Scenario 1, Scenario 2 …
See the Beskeen Excel Unit K and the Videos provided in the Course Content section for more details on creating Scenarios.
Task 20: Scenario Summary
Using the Scenario Manager in Excel create a Scenario Summary worksheet from the DataInput worksheet based on the eight (8) Scenarios from Task 20 and focusing on the Result cells D12, D22, D25, D26, D28, D30, D31 and D32 on the DataInput worksheet.
Place the Scenario Summary worksheet between the Calculations and Report worksheets.
Note: Format your Scenario Summary worksheet to look professional as follows:
• Modify the heading of the Scenario Summary
• Remove the Current Value and Notes
• Label the Changing Cells and Results Cells
See the Beskeen Excel Unit K and the Videos provided in the Course Content section for more details on creating Scenarios.
Task 21: Documentation Worksheet
Add a Documentation worksheet after the four tables from Task 1. Put a heading at the top of the worksheet in cell A1 called Documentation. Ensure that contains all the recommended information for this worksheet listed in the Practical Appendixes found on the Study Schedule and Module Materials – Spreadsheet design considerations.
The Documentation Worksheet must demonstrate the following:
• A statement outlining the purpose of the Spreadsheet:
Purpose should outline why the Spreadsheet was created including – discussion about the Markup Type, Exchange Rate and Freight Type.
• A statement about the protection level that should be used on each Worksheet.
Protection should look at all 10 Worksheets and outline whether each sheet should contain protection and why.
DO NOT actually apply protection to your Spreadsheet – this will result in it being unable to be marked.
• A statement about how the user can access and use the Worksheets.
User Notes should provide a step by step guide for a new user to use the Spreadsheet from changing the values on the DataInput Worksheet to observing the outcome of these changes on both DataInput and Report Worksheets.
• A statement about what calculations have been used in the development of this Spreadsheet.
Calculations Notes should provide a brief description of each calculation found on the Calculations and Report Worksheets (does not need to discuss individual Cell References and VLOOKUPs – these can be discussed generally as a single calculation type).
Modify the layout of the data to a professional level of presentation. Use bold, italics, font size, font colours, shading, lines and borders.
Assignment 1: Part C (Analytical Essay)
Mrs Tara Dis has asked you to develop an analytical essay (1500 words in length) to the client, Dr John Smith outlining the major issues that the Decision Support System’s results have highlighted. Create a Word Document (using Word 2007 to current) and name it ‘[lastname] [initial] _ [student number] _ [course code] _ [assignment number’
(eg. genrichr_0050051005_cis5100_assign1.docx).
Essays have a particular structure – An introduction, a body (where you write your answer in a number of paragraphs, usually one for each idea or topic) and a conclusion. The conclusion is where you sum up your ‘argument’. Essays normally do not have headings.
The information at the following URL may be useful:
http://www.usq.edu.au/learningcentre/assignment-skills/writing-assignments/essay-writing
The body of your essay should consider the following issues:
From Part A (Approx. 500 words):
• Define what a Database Management System is.
• Define what a Relational Database is.
• Explain why a Database Management System is the appropriate tool for this project.
• Explain why this Database Management System was developed as a Relational Database.
• Describe what a Database Query is and discuss briefly the THREE (3) queries that were developed for this project.
• Describe what a Database Report is and discuss briefly the report that was developed for this project.

From Part B (Approx. 1000 words):
• Define what a Decision Support System is.
• Explain why a Decision Support System is the appropriate tool for this project.
• From the results of the Decision Support System results discuss the following (keeping in mind the information provided in the preamble on page 2):
o Which Mark-up Type would be most appropriate for the business? Why?
o How would the choice of the Mark-up Type impact on the customer’s decision to purchase from the company? Why?
o What would be the impact on the business’s profit if the plan to provide a discount to large orders was implemented? Why?
o Which Recommended Freight Type would be most appropriate for the business? Why?
o What would be the impact that the different Recommended Freight Types would have on the business’s profit if the cost was transferred to the business instead of the customer (as discussed in the preamble)? Why?
o Which country would be most appropriate for the business to import from at the moment? Why?
o What issues could cause the business to rethink its choice of country of import? Why?
The essay should be using a proportional font (eg. Arial, Times New Roman etc.), with a font size of 11 or 12, and be laid out using 1 ½ line spacing.
Note: It is expected that you will use the Baltzan et al and Beskeen et al textbooks to answer the topics Mrs Tara Dis has given you for the essay, as well as reputable online sources of information. You need to include a brief Bibliography formatted using the Harvard AGPS style on a separate page (see the following USQ website for referencing help: http://www.usq.edu.au/library/referencing/harvard-agps-referencing-guide.

Submission Guidelines
Attach the three (3) files:
• Access (any version from Access 2007 to current),
• Excel (any version from Excel 2007 to current), &
• Word (any version from Word 2007 to current)
Use the naming convention below, to your online assignment submission in the Assignment 1 area on the CIS5100 StudyDesk before midnight Australian Eastern Standard Time (AEST) on the day the assignment is due.
1. [lastname] [initial] _ [student number] _ [course code] _ assign1.accdb (eg. genrichr_0050051005_cis5100_assign1.accdb).
2. [lastname] [initial] _ [student number] _ [course code] _ assign1.xlsx (eg. genrichr_0050051005_cis5100_assign1.xlsx).
3. [lastname] [initial] _ [student number] _ [course code] _ assign1.docx (eg. genrichr_0050051005_cis5100_assign1.docx).
Note: Simply changing the File extension to .accdb or .xlsx or .docx on an Access 2003, Excel 2003 or Word 2003 File will not result in a suitable submission. If the assignment Files cannot be opened by the marker, it may be treated as late until a suitable replacement is received.
Upon completion of the submission process, check your uConnect email account for an automatically generated confirmation email (if you do not have an email account, print out the Submission Complete screen before exiting the Submission System). You must check that the File name and File size are listed correctly – if there is a problem with either, please email the course leader immediately.
If you have difficulties submitting through the StudyDesk Assignments submission tool, please review the Student Instructions document listed also on the CIS5100 StudyDesk. As a last resort only, email the course leader for instructions on an alternative course of action.

Viktor Frankl (1905–1995) once said: “Everything can be taken from a man but one thing; the last of the human freedoms—to choose one’s attitude in any given set of circumstances, to choose one’s own way.” Dr. Viktor Frankl was a Jewish Austrian neurologist and psychologist who survived the concentration camps during World War II. Frankl had his opinion on human freedom. Respond to the following questions: Explain whether you agree with Frankl’s opinion that it is important for a person to have the freedom to choose one’s attitude in a given set of circumstances and to choose one’s own way. Describe a personal example in a business setting that supports your explanation. For instance, you might want to discuss how people deal with edicts from on high in a given organization vs. situations where employees have a voice in the decision making process. To what extent you believe that freedom or the right to choose is important from an ethical perspective and how does this choice impact business success?

BHO2434 Consumer Behaviour Assessment Three – S1 – 2016
“Consumer Behaviour Report”
As part of your assigned group you will be required to submit a report on one of the two topics below.
“What do studies of stationary markets show? How does this work help us to define the limits of effective marketing intervention? Discuss.”
Or
“Describe the theory of planned behaviour, its applications, strengths and weaknesses.”
30% – Due Week Nine (9) (Week Commencing 2nd May)
Be clear, relevant and concise – in no more than 2,000 – 2,500 words not including references. Please use 12 point font, 1.5 spacing. The report needs to be submitted through Turnitin by 4pm on the Friday of Week 9 – Friday 6th May.
A good answer is closely related to the question, factually accurate, connected to the relevant theory and to the implications and applications of the evidence. Key studies and recent work should cited. You must use evidence to support your arguments. Practitioner’s concerns are important in showing the relevance of the question but these are not evidence. Do not be superficial; if the question is wide, cover some part of the answer in reasonable depth and state that you are doing this. It is important to indicate doubts about evidence and theory. Try to use academic journal papers as well as text book/lecture notes. References should be cited in the text, e.g. Smith (1956), and then fully listed in alphabetic order at the end. You must always give the authorship of work that you use, otherwise it is plagiarism.
BHO2434 Consumer Behaviour: Assignment
Two – Report
Students:
First Name Surname ID
Assignment Section Marks Allocated Not adeq
uate
(0) Poor
(1+) Adeq
uate
(5+) Very good
(7+) Excel
lent
(10)
Overall Presentation including spelling, grammar and layout (please note: poor spelling, grammar and layout may affect marks in other sections of the report). 10
Executive Summary which summarises the report as a whole.
5
Introduction This section includes the literature review 25
Discussion which discusses and applies the relevant CB theory from the previous section to explain what the marketing implications are.
30
Conclusion which summarises the outcome of your Discussion Section and the Implications of what you have found.
15
Sufficient number of references and correct referencing style (use of Harvard system). Note errors with referencing may affect marks in other sections of the report. Plagiarism will result in an overall fail.
10
Appendices (and organisation of appendices) which provide supporting material. These could include photos, brochures etc.
5
TOTAL TOTAL/ 30
/100 /30
Comments

Module 7 Assignment
Introduction
In this module, you have learned about the issues involved in resolving disputes arising from the collective agreement. The purpose of this assignment is to test your comprehension of these concepts.
This assignment is worth 15% of your course grade.
Instructions
Part A: Grievance Settlements (3 marks)
Incorporate your journal entries from the “Settlement of Grievances” activity in Topic 2 into a 250-word paragraph on the pros and cons of allowing or settling termination grievances and the best manner in which to do this.
Part B: Dispute Resolution (3 marks)
What type of dispute resolution process would be appropriate for the following types of disputes, and why?
• An employee is terminated for theft. The employee steadfastly denies taking the merchandise, and the employer has one witness who says that she saw the theft happen.
• An employee is denied “marriage leave” under the collective agreement because she requests it six months after the wedding in order to go on a honeymoon. There is no dispute on the facts, but the wording of the collective agreement could be interpreted in two different ways.
• An employee files a personal harassment grievance against her supervisor, alleging that there have been ten years of ongoing harassing comments and actions taken against her. The hearing would be long and involve a significant amount of evidence being called, including the evidence of every subordinate of this supervisor, which would put a great deal of pressure on the entire workforce.
Part C: Extra Damages (3 marks)
Provincial labour legislation sets out the powers of arbitrators and arbitration panels. For example, they have the ability to subpoena witnesses, call evidence, and order a remedy in a number of areas. An arbitrator can order that the party in breach of the collective agreement pay compensation to the aggrieved party in order to make them “whole.” For example, suppose that an employee has been unjustly terminated and has been off work for two months. The arbitrator can order that the employer pay the employee for the two months of back wages and benefits.
However, in BC, arbitrators do not have the ability to award punitive damages (over and above the amount of compensation needed to put the aggrieved person in the position as if the collective agreement had not been breached). In a 250-word paragraph, consider both the pros and cons of an arbitrator having the ability to award extra damages (i.e., damages to “teach the employer a lesson”). Do you think that an arbitrator should be able to award these types of damages?
Part D: Major Module Assignment (6 marks)
Read the following scenario and write a 250-word (approximately 1 page) response answering the following questions:
• Assume that the union files a grievance. Summarize the nature of the grievance and the remedy that the union would request in the grievance.
• Analyze both parties’ arguments to the grievance.
• If you were the arbitrator, which decision would you make and why?
• How would a ‘without prejudice’ settlement benefit or not benefit the parties?
Robert Findlay Scenario
Robert Findlay recently arrived in Vancouver from Winnipeg to a new company to take a position as maintenance engineer for XYZ Company. He has 15 years of experience in his line of work but he has had trouble adjusting to his new work environment. He feels that he is given the most labour-intensive and brainless work at the plant and that he is bypassed for the more skilled work that he can capably perform.
One day in October, Robert Findlay felt his frustrations at work growing. He had just come to work on a Monday morning after a weekend of nursing his wife and four children who had had the flu. He arrived at work twenty minutes late and when he tried to explain his situation to his supervisor, the supervisor listened for about one minute and then got distracted by other work. The supervisor ended up telling him that if he were late again, action would be started against him and that such action would eventually lead to his termination. His supervisor explained how he hated to take this approach with Robert as he was a good worker but that he had to consistently apply the rules regarding tardiness.
When Robert went to the dispatcher to pick up his tools for work all that was left were the worst tools in the shop. He moped over to the supervisor; the same person who would not listen to him about being late and he, as usual, gave him the dirtiest work of the day. As he was working on the equipment, the union representative came to him and told him that the company had not made enough profit this year for the employees to receive a Christmas bonus. Robert had been counting on that bonus to catch up on his expenses from moving.
Close to the end of Robert’s shift he sat down and started to complain to one of his coworkers. His co-worker suggested that if he were discontent he should talk to the union representative. So, he went to the union representative with his problems. The union representative (who also worked in the same department) said that there was nothing that could be done about his situation. Therefore, Robert took matters into his own hands and went to see the plant supervisor.
He walked into her office and said, “What kind of operation are you running here anyway? All I get are the dirtiest jobs and to top it off, after all this sweat and pain, I’m not going to get any Christmas bonus! I quit!” The supervisor stood there a bit stunned by this outburst but did not endeavour to convince Robert to stay at work as they would be entering a quieter production time now that the fall was over.
After a day of cooling off, Robert realized that he needed this work and that perhaps he could stick it out a while longer. He phoned the plant supervisor and stated that he had quit in haste and that he would like his position back. The plant supervisor stated that she considered that he had quit and that was the end of the matter. Robert phoned the local union who said that they would investigate the matter for him and let him know if he had a valid grievance.
Part E: Participation Summary (5 % of the final course grade)
• Prepare a 200-word report (not more than 1 page, double-spaced) that summarizes your contribution to each of the 3 monthly online discussions. Provide evidence of sample highlights and examples that demonstrate your depth of thinking.
• Prepare a 200-word report (not more than 1 page, double-spaced) that presents your opinion about the online discussions. Discuss how participating in the monthly online discussions make you more aware of your views and other peoples’ views about the course topics. How did you react to the perspectives presented in the headline articles? Did you agree or disagree with everything you read? Were you comfortable with other learners’ perspectives when they varied from your own? Do you think that contrasting ideas influenced you or your ideas and viewpoints? Explain your answer.

COURSEMATERIALS

Topic 1: Prevention of Grievances
While there are many issues that arise between management and the union during the term of the collective agreement, strikes and lockouts are not permitted during the term of the agreement. So how are these disputes resolved? Often, these types of disagreements are resolved daily with little or no difficulty. There are union stewards in the workplace who hold a dual role: while performing their regular job with the employer, they also act as “first level” representatives of the union. In other words, when an employee has a concern about an issue in the workplace, he or she can approach the union steward, who may be able to resolve the concern (e.g., by explaining the provisions of the collective agreement) or approach a management representative to discuss the issue. Many potentially large disagreements can be resolved at this early point by this process.
You have already learned about the different labour relations management strategies that can be used. Employers that adopt a union acceptance strategy are much more likely to resolve disputes informally. In these workplaces, the union stewards feel comfortable with management and are encouraged to come forward to discuss issues of concern as soon as they arise. This open communication between the parties is invaluable in working together during the term of the collective agreement and preventing the issues of concern from turning into grievances.
A grievance is the formal airing of a dispute by either party, usually the union. It involves an official complaint, usually regarding management’s interpretation of the collective agreement or implementation of its management rights.
It is important to understand that, even though the grievance may relate to a specific employee’s circumstances (e.g., a grievance alleging that the employee was unjustly disciplined), it is the union that “owns” the grievance. In other words, the union can file the grievance and even settle the matter without the approval or assistance of the employee. Of course, if an employee feels that he or she has not been fairly represented by the union, an “unfair representation” complaint can be filed against the union.
The “work now, grieve later” principle is a given in Canadian labour relations. For example, if an employee feels that the employer is breaching the collective agreement by asking her to work overtime without extra pay, she must work the overtime and grieve the matter, unless to do so would be unsafe or unlawful. This principle exists so that the workplace can continue to run in an efficient manner, while also ensuring that an employee’s rights are protected. In this example, if the employer was wrong to require her to work overtime without extra pay, the employee will be reimbursed for the payment in order to put her in the same position as if the collective agreement had not been breached.
Generally, labour legislation stipulates that every collective agreement must contain an arbitration provision. This type of provision provides that any disagreement between the parties about the interpretation or alleged breach of the collective agreement—including discipline or termination issues—may be submitted to an impartial arbitrator for resolution. Typically, it is only possible to send a dispute to arbitration after the grievance procedure has been exhausted.
While the parties are free to negotiate any type of grievance procedure that they wish, typical grievance procedures include three steps. Step 1 is generally an oral complaint given to management, with the two parties trying to resolve the matter. If the problem cannot be solved at this point, the union can move the grievance along to Step 2, generally a written complaint to the employer, including the details of the complaint and the remedy requested. Management then is given a certain amount of time to investigate and respond in writing to the grievance, either allowing it or denying it. If the grievance is denied and the union wishes to pursue the matter, they can then submit the grievance to Step 3 of the process. At this stage, there is generally a meeting/hearing where both parties give their evidence and arguments, commonly in front of two or more representatives from each party. This is the last time that the grievance can be settled before being referred to arbitration.
Activity 1: Grievances
Introduction
There are a few different types of grievances that can be filed in the workplace. Similarly, there are varying grievance procedures that are negotiated into collective agreements.
Instructions
To better understand the types of grievances that may be filed and how parties choose to deal with them, read pages 373-385 in the text. As you are reading, consider whether you think the grievance procedure is a useful method of resolving disputes in the workplace. Why or why not?
Activity 2: Grievance Experience
Introduction
In large workplace, it is not uncommon for hundreds of grievances to be filed every year. Of these grievances, a vast majority are settled during the grievance procedure, without the need for arbitration.
Instructions

In your reflective journal, outline your experience with a grievance filed with an employer. It can be your grievance or a grievance that you have heard or read about in your workplace or in another workplace. What was the grievance about? Did the parties try to settle it early on in the grievance procedure? Was it resolved without resorting to arbitration? Do you think the matter was dealt with in the most effective manner? What were the effects beyond the grievance procedure (e.g., to the personal relationship between the parties involved)?

\

\TOPIC 2
Case Study: Josh

Josh works for the City of Pleasantville as a unionized park worker. One afternoon, the human resources manager, Beth, notices him sitting in his city truck at the side of the road. She approaches him and catches a whiff of marijuana from his truck. She asks him if he is smoking marijuana, and he admits that he is. He explains that he is on a break, and that he is just about done his shift.
After an investigation, the employer decides to terminate Josh’s employment as a result of his actions. The president of the local union, Jeff, immediately approaches Beth to discuss the situation at Step 1 of the grievance procedure. She advises that doing drugs on city time is a very serious employment offence, and there is absolutely no possibility that the employer will reconsider its decision. Accordingly, the union files the grievance at Step 2 of the grievance procedure. The grievance alleges that the employer has terminated the employee without just cause because Josh suffers from a drug addiction problem. The remedy requested is that the employer re-instate Josh immediately, allow him to undergo drug counselling, and credit him with the seniority and wages that he has missed since he was terminated.

After the alleged violation of the collective agreement, the union will conduct its investigation. The shop steward and/or a representative of the union will interview witnesses and collect pictures and any evidence of the breach. The union will then determine if it feels that there has been a breach of the collective agreement. Sometimes, an employee may feel wronged, but the union may decide that the employer hasn’t breached the collective agreement, or they don’t feel that filing a grievance is appropriate at the time. As discussed above, the union owns the grievance and can determine whether the grievance should be filed and pursued.
If the union determines that there has been a breach that should be remedied by the employer, it is generally the shop steward or another local union representative who approaches management at Step 1 of the grievance procedure.
It is usually not until the grievance is filed at Step 2 of the grievance procedure (i.e., submission of the written grievance) that the employer undertakes a detailed investigation. In some workplaces, the written grievances are filed with the human resources or labour relations department, and staff is not necessarily aware of the circumstances of each grievance. In these situations, it is very important for management to interview witnesses and attempt to find out the circumstances behind the grievance to see if the grievance should be allowed. It is important for the employer to continue to treat the employee fairly during this process (assuming that it is not a termination grievance). If the employee continues to work during the grievance procedure, the employer cannot retaliate in any way against him or her.
In the example above, the written grievance is most likely filed with Beth, who has had intimate knowledge of the situation from the start and doesn’t need to conduct a detailed investigation into the facts. However, once the written grievance comes in, Beth may learn additional facts from the grievance form or from the union directly, necessitating a further investigation. In the above example, Beth was not aware that the union was alleging that Josh has a drug addiction problem until the grievance was actually filed. At this point, Beth will need to undertake a further investigation to ascertain the truth of this assertion. She may then consult with other management personnel to determine whether the decision to terminate was excessive given this new information.
Management may decide that no breach of the collective agreement has occurred and advise the union in writing that the grievance is denied at the second step of the grievance procedure. In some cases, however, management may determine that there has been a breach of the agreement and advise the union in writing that the grievance has been allowed. The employer would then give the remedy that the union asked for in the grievance. In other cases, the employer may feel strongly that they did not do anything wrong but may recognize that there is a risk that an outsider may view their conduct as a breach. At this point, the employer may want to engage in settlement discussions.
Settling a grievance is a common method by which the union and the employer resolve the grievance to both parties’ satisfaction. The union will withdraw the grievance and promise not to file the same grievance again in exchange for some type of remedy given by the employer. The nature of a settlement is that neither party admits that they are wrong, but a compromise of some type is agreed upon (e.g., the employee is given some monetary compensation, or the employer agrees to engage in certain conduct, such as posting a job or remedying a work schedule). It is important for the employer to remember that the union owns the grievance; therefore, any settlement discussions must be with the union. The employer cannot undertake settlement discussions directly with the employee.
The settlement of grievances is usually done on a “without prejudice” basis. In other words, neither party admits any wrongdoing. In addition, the fact that the parties have settled the matter cannot be used again in a subsequent dispute. For example, suppose that Josh is reinstated without prejudice basis as a settlement to the termination grievance. The next week, John, one of Josh’s co-workers, is caught doing drugs on his lunch break. If the employer terminates John, the union cannot argue that John cannot be terminated simply because of the fact that Josh was reinstated under similar circumstances. Instead, each new situation is decided and dealt with on its own merits.
Suppose a griever (John Brown) was fired for attending work while inebriated which according to the company policy is grounds for immediate termination based on the risk to himself and to his fellow employees.
Look at the following sample of a settlement to this grievance on a “without prejudice or precedent basis” by clicking on John Brown.
Activity 3: Settlement of Grievances
Introduction
In many workplaces, termination grievances are resolved in the following manner:
1. The termination letter is replaced with a letter of resignation.
2. All evidence of the termination is wiped from the employee’s personnel file, and the file is sealed.
3. The employee receives some type of monetary compensation (e.g., $2000).
4. The employer provides an agreed-upon reference letter. (E.g., Josh worked at the City as a parks worker from 1999 to 2001. His performance reviews were always above average.) The employer will only use this information when asked for a reference from a potential new employer and is prohibited from mentioning the alleged misconduct to any potential new employer calling for a reference.
Instructions
You will be expected to use your answers for this activity in the module assignment.
In your reflective journal, consider the pros and cons of agreeing to this type of a settlement, from both the employer’s and the union/employee’s view. You may want to consider the following questions:
• What is the $2000 for? Is it simply the employer making a business decision about the cost of having to defend the matter at arbitration? (I.e., if arbitration will cost $4000, why not just settle for $2000?) Is this “nuisance” money? Doesn’t paying this money actually open the door to more nuisances?
• Do you think that the alleged misconduct will truly be wiped from the employee’s file and never mentioned again? Is it fair that potential new employers are not privy to this information? What if the employee has been fired for suspected theft, this type of settlement is reached, and the employee then steals from the new employer? Should the new employer be able to sue the old employer for not disclosing the information?
• If the employee applies for new jobs and is directly asked whether he has been fired from any previous job, should he be able to say no, given the settlement reached? Is this ethical?
Activity 4: Case Study
Introduction
At the beginning of this topic, you read about Josh’s grievance with the City of Pleasantville. Assume the following facts:
• The employer has confirmed that Josh is a drug abuser, and he admits this and wants to kick the habit.
• The union has made it very clear that they are dedicated to taking this grievance all the way to arbitration if need be.
• Josh has been terminated for one month at this point and has lost approximately $4500 in wages and benefits.
Instructions
In your reflective journal, explore your feelings about allowing this grievance (i.e., reinstating Josh), denying it, or settling it. If you were the employer, what would you do? Would you reinstate Josh? Credit his seniority? Give him back pay? How much? Why?

Topic 3: Third Party Assistance in Resolving Grievances

There are two main types of arbitration: interest arbitration and grievance or rights arbitration. As you learned earlier, interest arbitration is usually used in collective bargaining as a last resort to resolve bargaining issues. Grievance arbitration or rights arbitration is used when the parties dispute the interpretation and application of a collective agreement after the grievance procedure has been exhausted.
An arbitrator is a neutral third party who listens to the evidence and arguments of both parties and then renders a binding decision. The parties are bound to abide by the decision of the arbitrator. Some agreements call for a single arbitrator, while others require that an arbitration panel hear the dispute. If a panel is used, each party commonly appoints one member of the panel, known as the “winger,” and then a third neutral arbitrator is also picked, either by the parties or by the “wingers.”
Usually, the parties agree to the appointment of a certain arbitrator. However, in some provinces, the labour legislation also sets out a process to have an arbitrator appointed where the parties are unable to agree. For example, in BC, either party may apply to the Collective Agreement Arbitration Bureau, and the bureau will appoint an arbitrator without any input from either party.
The arbitration process is adversarial: both sides present evidence and advocate their own positions, and the arbitrator chooses the “winner.” However, arbitrations are generally less formal than a traditional court setting. For example, hearings are commonly held in informal locations such as hotel meeting rooms. Also, the rules of evidence are more relaxed, and lawyers are not required to run arbitration. (Some parties still use lawyers, but most use in-house advocates or representatives.) The costs of the arbitration are generally borne by each party, unless the collective agreement states otherwise.
Arbitrators have the power to summon witnesses to testify and/or to bring relevant documents to the hearing. Prior to the arbitration, either party can ask for an order from the arbitrator (usually through a conference call) to obtain disclosure of needed information from the other side, where that party has been unwilling to give it.
The physical layout of the arbitration room is shown below. The arbitrator (or arbitration panel) sits in the middle, with each party on the opposite side of the U-shaped table. There is a small table on the open side of the square, where witnesses sit to give testimony.

The chronology of arbitration is as follows:
1 Opening comments of Party 1, the party bearing the onus in the case, followed by the opening comments of Party 2. Note: The union generally bears the onus to prove that there has been a violation of the collective agreement in all cases, except two notable exceptions: in discipline/discharge cases and in selection cases, the employer goes first and has the onus of proof.
2 Party 1 leads their witnesses through the evidence. Party 2 cross-examines each witness after their evidence.
3 Party 2 leads their witnesses through their evidence. Party 1 cross-examines each witness after their evidence
4 Arguments and closing comments by Party 1, then Party 2. Finally, Party 1 may make a short reply to anything new brought up by Party 2 in its closing arguments. Note: In closing arguments, the parties will apply their facts to the law and argue that the law is in their favour. Each party may point out other arbitration cases that came to the conclusion that they favour.
Once the arbitration hearing is concluded, the arbitrator (or panel) reviews the facts, evidence, arguments, and law and writes a binding decision. The decision of the arbitrator is reviewable but only in certain circumstances, which are set out by the provincial labour legislation. For example, in BC, Section 99 of the Labour Relations Code allows arbitrations to be appealed to the Labour Relations Board within fifteen days where a party has been denied a fair hearing or the award is inconsistent with the principles of the code. Generally, the board will not interfere with the interpretation of the collective agreement by an arbitrator where he or she has made a genuine effort and there was a reasoned analysis of the issues. For example, the board will not consider new argument or new evidence not presented at the choice of applicant, nor will it review findings of fact. However, the Board will interfere, for example, when there has not been a fair hearing, the real substance of the matter was not considered, the arbitrator considered facts not in evidence, or the arbitrator should have looked at outside extrinsic evidence. If the board decides to allow the appeal, it can substitute its own decision, send it back to the original arbitrator (often with directions), or give it to a new arbitrator.
In BC, if a party is still unhappy with the result, it can only require the board to reconsider its own decision if there is substantial proof that there is new evidence, the original decision was inconsistent with the principles of the Labour Relations Code, or the board acted contrary to the principles of procedural fairness.
Alternatives to Arbitration
While the arbitration process was invented as a means of having a less formal and more cost-effective way to solve disputes arising during the term of the collective agreement, there are critics of the system. Some people feel that the arbitration process has become overly legalistic, costly, and inefficient. It is not uncommon for arbitration hearings to last several days or a week. With arbitrators charging approximately $2000 per day, plus the cost of the room rental and any legal fees, it is not a cheap forum.
For these reasons, some parties use other methods of dispute resolution. For example, many collective agreements include the ability to send a dispute to mediation, a troubleshooter, a med-arb, or a summary form of arbitration. In mediation, an impartial mediator will assist the parties to come to a settlement on the issues, without the need to go through all of the evidence. The mediator may be appointed by the parties or through a process set out in the labour legislation. For example, in BC, either party may apply to the Collective Agreement Arbitration Bureau to have a settlement officer appointed to assist the parties in resolving the issue prior to it going to formal arbitration.
In a troubleshooter, a neutral third party may attempt mediation but will also render a “recommended settlement” to the parties, which the parties may or may not choose to follow. In a med-arb, the third party acts as a mediator at first; however, if the parties are unable to resolve the matter, the third party becomes the arbitrator, hears the evidence, and then renders a binding decision. In some collective agreements, a summary form of arbitration is provided for. For example, there may be no evidence called, and the hearing just proceeds on the basis of oral or written arguments submitted to an arbitrator. This type of hearing is not good for issues involving witness credibility. However, it is good for issues where the facts are not in dispute.
In many jurisdictions, there is also an expedited arbitration process set out under the labour legislation. This may be used when one party feels that there is urgency in having the matter heard by an arbitrator. For example, in BC, Section 104 of the Labour Relations Code sets out the expedited arbitration process. Specifically, assuming that the grievance procedure has been exhausted and the matter has not yet been referred to arbitration under the collective agreement provisions (but the timeframe for referring to arbitration is not yet expired), either party can apply for expedited arbitration. The Collective Agreement Arbitration Bureau will appoint an arbitrator; a hearing must be held within twenty-eight days, and a decision rendered within twenty-one days after the conclusion of the hearing.
Activity 5: Arbitrations and Alternatives to Arbitrations
Introduction
The traditional adversarial approach to arbitrations continues to be the most widely used method for solving disputes arising during the term of the collective agreement. While there are benefits to this approach, it also has its critics, and therefore a number of alternative dispute resolution methods have started to emerge.
Instructions
Read the “Guide to the Labour Relations Code” regarding the third party grievance resolution procedures available in British Columbia at http://www.lrb.bc.ca/codeguide/chapter9.htm.
Read pages 388-390 in the text. As you read, consider the advantages and disadvantages of using grievance arbitration versus the alternative approaches. Do you feel that different types of disputes may be more amenable to different resolution processes? Why or why not?
Activity 6: Canada Labour Code Comparison
Introduction
In this topic, we have been considering arbitration processes for employers covered by the provincial labour legislation. However, there are also many federal employers—such as airlines and banks—that are covered by the Canada Labour Code.
Instructions
Access the Canada Labour Code at http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/l-2/index.html Browse the sections of the code that pertain to grievance arbitration. Compare and contrast these provisions with those under the provincial legislation of your choice. You can find the provincial labour legislation at the same link.

Labor Relations Assignment
Part A: Grievance Settlements
The settlement of grievances exposes the organizations and employees to various benefits and disadvantages. The settling of the grievances is a common approach in resolving the grievances to enhance satisfaction. One of the benefits of the settlement of grievances is that it occurs without prejudice (Colvin, & Gough, 2015). The approach ensures that both prejudices are applied in settlement of the disputes with the employees. For example, Josh was later reinstated without any prejudice indicating the settlement of the termination grievances.
The approach also gives both parties including the Union and the employee the opportunity to explain their actions and whether they had violated the employment terms. Each party will explain his demands and their willingness to compromise for a solution. For example, when the employer feels that they did not violate the employment contracts, they can engage in settlement discussion with the union and the aggrieved employees (Blake, Browne, & Sime, 2016). The disadvantages include the lack of a decisive person with authority to make a professional judgment on the issue. The settlement approach could lead to unfair solution due to the lack of specific action of settling the grievances.
The best way to settling the grievances is the conducting of open discussions with the union representatives and the aggrieved employees. The discussion will help in getting feedback and negotiating better terms and agreements, which is useful. The condition of negotiation with the aggrieved parties is critical in obtaining a sustainable solution (Nolan-Haley, 2013). It is because all parties can make their arguments and compromise into a single solution, which is acceptable. In litigation, it would leave some parties unsatisfied with the outcome and would affect their engagements in the future.

Part B: Dispute Resolution
In the case of employee termination because of theft, litigation would be the best dispute resolution process. It is because of it difficult to resolve the theft issues without a jury and judge to prove the claims of theft by the employee.

In the issue of the employee being denied marriage leave based on collective agreement, the use of negotiation would be appropriate. The employer should seek the union and the employees to negotiate on the terms and conditions for being allowed to go on marriage leave.

In the case of the employee filing sexual harassment claims, the best dispute resolution process is a settlement of the grievances of the employees. The reliance on the judicial process would be costly to the company and could hurt the reputation of the company and the accused employees. Thus, the settlement of the case is useful in dealing with the sexual harassment claims.

Part C: Extra Damages
An arbitrator’s ability to award damages to aggrieved employees is important. The aspect has some advantages and disadvantages. Some of the advantages include the parties have the opportunity to choose an arbitrator with expertise on the subject matter. The expertise in the emolument contracts would be useful in ensuring that the arbitrator is fair (Brubaker, et al., 2014). Another advantage is that the arbitrator will make the final decisions. The power of awarding damages is useful in making the specific decision. In the arbitration process, there is usually no jury.
On the other hand, the disadvantages include the lack of full understand of the information and evidence due to the limited time. The arbitrators usually lack comprehensive evidence and information to make good decisions. Another disadvantage of the arbitrators is that it makes awards without written evidence and documents. The lack of written documents and evidence can lead to the arbitrators making the wrong decisions. These advantages and disadvantages are useful in resolving the arbitration concerns by giving awards to the aggrieved persons.
I think the arbitrator should be allowed to award these types of damages to the employees. It is because if the arbitrator does not have any powers to award damages, the arbitration process would be irrelevant. An arbitrator will fulfill his mandate well when he or she has the influence to offer a significant direction about the disputes (Colvin, & Gough, 2015). It is important that the arbitration process continues with the opportunity for the aggrieved party to get remedies, more so the award damages. Thus, the arbitration process is useful in resolving the employee grievances with the employers.

Part D: Major Module Assignment
The union phoned by Robert would seek a grievance against poor working conditions because it is not easy to file a grievance against the bonuses. The company has the privilege to decide whether to offer bonuses to the employees depending on the profitability of the company in the year. The union would be requesting for the reinstatement of Robert and demand for him to be given better jobs and improved working conditions.

In the part of the employer, they would argue that Robert had verbally quit from the Job and they had agreed to his dismissal. The employer would have a valid argument that Robert was unwilling to work for them and he had reassigned willingly from the job. In contrast, the union will argue that Robert had valid complaints against the company such as the poor working conditions.
For example, Robert had complained about being given the dirtiest jobs in the company, which usually lead to him being sick and late for a job. Even after complaining, the supervisor did not take any actions to improve the working conditions (Colvin, 2013). The union can also argue that Robert had made verbal to quit under extraordinary situations when he was angry. The situation shows that Robert could not make rational decision to quit.
If I were an arbitrator, I would make the decision to compel the company in reinstating Robert and guaranteeing better working conditions rather than giving him the dirtiest considering his qualifications as an engineer. A without prejudice settlement would benefit both parties by ensuring that Robert and his employer have a good working relation in the future (Blake, et al., 2016). It helps to reduce potential conflicts and negative perceptions other persons.
Part E: Participation Summary
In the last three months, I was able to engage in the various online discussions about labor relations and resolution of disputes in the workplace. The aspects of grievance settlements are an important subject in dealing with settling termination grievances. The resolution of grievances is an important strategy useful in dealing with critical problems facing the employers. The dispute resolution subject involved different methods including litigation, arbitration, negotiation, and collective bargaining agreements. For example, I learned the various aspects of dispute resolution such as the settlement of grievances. In addition, the aspect of extra damages is useful in understanding the power of the arbitrators to remedy grievances raised by the employees.
The participation in the online discussions was useful in getting diverse views from the opinions raised by the other students on the topics. The perspectives on dispute resolution were presented in the headline articles through catchy themes and brief quotes useful in understanding the subject matters. I would not agree with all the things I read in the headline articles. I usually focused on getting the subject description and ensuring that it gives strong evidence and opinion on the issues. At times, I was comfortable with the other persons’ perspectives even when they were different from my personal views. The contrasting ideas helped in improving my ideas on the key labor issues in the organizations.

References
Blake, S., Browne, J., & Sime, S. (2016). A practical approach to alternative dispute resolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brubaker, D., Noble, C., Fincher, R., Park, S. K. Y., & Press, S. (2014). Conflict resolution in the workplace: What will the future bring?. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 31(4), 357-386.
Colvin, A. J. (2013). Participation versus procedures in non‐union dispute resolution. Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, 52(s1), 259-283.
Colvin, A. J., & Gough, M. D. (2015). Individual employment rights arbitration in the United States: Actors and outcomes. ILR Review, 68(5), 1019-1042.
Nolan-Haley, J. (2013). Alternative Dispute Resolution in a Nutshell, 4th. New York: West Academic.